Volume 118, Issue 1, July 2005
Index of content:
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1852548View Description Hide Description
We consider evacuated thin semi-infinite shells immersed in a fluid, which may be either of cylindrical shape with a hemispherical shell endcap, or formed two-dimensionally by semi-infinite parallel plates joined together by a semi-cylinder. The connected shell portions are joined in a manner to satisfy continuity but with a discontinuous radius of curvature. Acoustic waves are considered incident along the axis of symmetry (say the z axis) onto the curved portion of the shell, where they, at the critical angle of coincidence, generate Lamb and Stoneley-type waves in the shell. Computations were carried out using a code developed by Cao et al. [Chinese J. Acoust.14, 317 (1995)] and was used in order to computationally visualize the waves in the fluid that have been re-radiated by the shell waves a the critical angle. The frequency range was below that of the lowest Lamb wave, and only the wave (and partly the wave) was observed to re-radiate into the fluid under our assumptions. The results will be compared to experimental results in which the re-radiated waves are optically visualized by the Schardin–Cranz schlieren method.
On the relationship between signal bandwidth and frequency correlation for ocean surface forward scattered signals118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1914266View Description Hide Description
The relationship between the bandwidth of a signal and the correlation of that signal with its ocean surface reflected arrival, a quantity we term frequency correlation, has been investigated experimentally and compared with two theories. Decorrelation of wideband surface scattered signals is a direct consequence of time spread. The acoustic measurement utilized a very short pure tone signal, from which time spread has been estimated, and four broadband signals with different bandwidths, for which correlation with the transmitted signal has been measured. An environment-driven model developed by Dahl was used to predict time spread, which agreed favorably with our time spread measurements. The model was also employed in two theories that predict frequency correlation. The first, a theory published by Reeves in 1974, is based upon the ratio of signal temporal resolution to total time spread. This theory compared well with our measurements for 1 kHz bandwidth signals, but is not applicable for signal bandwidths greater than about 2 kHz. The second, a theory developed by Ziomek, models ocean acoustic propagation as transmission through a linear system. This theory agreed well with our frequency correlation measurements for signal bandwidths of 1–22 kHz.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1904404View Description Hide Description
Geoacoustic inversion and source localization using beamformed data from a ship of opportunity has been demonstrated with a bottom-mounted array. An alternative approach, which lies within a class referred to as spatial filtering, transforms element level data into beam data, applies a bearing filter, and transforms back to element level data prior to performing inversions. Automation of this filtering approach is facilitated for broadband applications by restricting the inverse transform to the degrees of freedom of the array, i.e., the effective number of elements, for frequencies near or below the design frequency. A procedure is described for nonuniformly spaced elements that guarantees filter stability well above the design frequency. Monitoring energy conservation with respect to filter output confirms filter stability. Filter performance with both uniformly spaced and nonuniformly spaced array elements is discussed. Vertical (range and depth) and horizontal (range and bearing) ambiguity surfaces are constructed to examine filter performance. Examples that demonstrate this filtering technique with both synthetic data and real data are presented along with comparisons to inversion results using beamformed data. Examinations of cost functions calculated within a simulated annealing algorithm reveal the efficacy of the approach.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1925988View Description Hide Description
The geoacoustic properties of marine sediments, e.g., bulk density and compressional velocity, commonly exhibit large variations in depth near the water–sediment interface. This layer, termed the transition layer, is typically of in thickness. Depth variations within the transition layer may have important implications for understanding and modeling acoustic interaction with the seabed, including propagation and reverberation. In addition, the variations may contain significant clues about the underlying depositional or erosional processes. Characteristics of the transition layer can be measured directly (e.g., coring) or remotely. Remote measurements have the advantage of sampling without disturbing the sediment properties; they also have the potential to be orders of magnitude faster and less expensive than direct methods. It is shown that broadband seabed reflection data can be exploited to remotely obtain the depth dependent density and velocity profiles in the transition layer to high accuracy. A Bayesian inversion approach, which accounts for correlated data errors, provides estimates and uncertainties for the geoacoustic properties. These properties agree with direct (i.e., core) measurements within the uncertainty estimates.