Ultrasound image of the palate and tongue surface during a water swallow. Both the palate and the tongue are visible because of the partial transmission/reflection of the ultrasound beam by the bolus of water. The shadow of the jaw bone obscures the most anterior portion of the tongue.
Reflection of a bolus of water. A palate contour from a dry swallow is superimposed on the ultrasound image (small black and white dots). Note how the water bolus reflection is below the palate contour along the posterior edge.
Ultrasound image illustrating bend between rugae and vault of the palate for subject 2 during a dry swallow. In this frame the tongue contour is curved and the palate contour has an angular bend (marked by white arrow). The lower edge of the palate contour should be extracted.
A midsagittal CT slice (iCAT, Imaging Sciences International) of subject sustaining /t/. Note how the palatal mucosa thickens from anterior to posterior and the thickness of the velum. Figure courtesy of Ian Wilson, University of British Columbia.
Tongue and palate contours for five subjects (centimeter scale). Tongue tips are to the right.
Block differences between the palate and the tongue contours or between the two tongue contours for subject 1. The contours from Fig. 5 are segmented between the vertical lines. The contours are divided into two equal length segments (anterior and posterior) and average nearest-neighbor differences are calculated between the contours for each segment.
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