Volume 118, Issue 4, October 2005
Index of content:
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
Multichannel time-reversal processing for acoustic communications in a highly reverberant environment118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2011167View Description Hide Description
The development of time-reversal (T/R) communication systems is a recent signal processing research area dominated by applying T/R techniques to communicate in hostile environments. The fundamental concept is based on time-reversing the impulse response or Green’s function characterizing the uncertain communications channel to mitigate deleterious dispersion and multipath effects. In this paper, we extend point-to-point to array-to-point communications by first establishing the basic theory to define and solve the underlying multichannel communications problem and then developing various realizations of the resulting T/R receivers. We show that not only do these receivers perform well in a hostile environment, but they also can be implemented with a “ ” analog-to-digital converter design structure. We validate these results by performing proof-of-principle acoustic communications experiments in air. It is shown that the resulting T/R receivers are capable of extracting the transmitted coded sequence from noisy microphone array measurements with zero-bit error.
Source visualization by using statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography in cylindrical coordinates118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2036252View Description Hide Description
Nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is a useful tool for visualizing noise sources. However, to avoid spatial Fourier transform-related truncation effects, the measurement, or hologram, surface must extend beyond the source to a region where the sound pressure drops to a level significantly lower than the peak level within the measurement aperture. Statistically optimized nearfield acoustical holography (SONAH), first derived by Steiner and Hald in planar geometry, is based on a formulation similar to that of NAH. However, in SONAH, surface-to-surface projection of the sound field is performed by using a transfer matrix defined in such a way that all propagating waves and a weighted set of evanescent waves are projected with optimal average accuracy: i.e., no spatial Fourier transforms are performed. Thus the requirement that the measurementsurface be extended is eliminated without compromising the accuracy of the procedure. In the present work, SONAH was re-formulated in cylindrical coordinates and was applied to the measurement of the sound field radiated by a refrigeration compressor. It was found that it is possible to visualize source regions accurately by using SONAH while using fewer measurement positions than would be required to achieve a similar level of accuracy when using conventional NAH procedures.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2011147View Description Hide Description
Time reversal has been shown as an effective way to focus in both time and space. The temporal focusing properties have been used extensively in underwater acoustics communications. Typical time-reversal communication experiments use vertical transducer arrays both to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and decrease the temporal sidelobes created in the time reversal process. Comparable temporal focusing is achieved using a horizontal array. In this paper, synthetic aperture time-reversal communications are accomplished, requiring only two transducers (one transmitter and one receiver). Deriving results from an at-sea experiment, this work confirms the viability of synthetic aperture time-reversal communications.