Index of content:
Volume 118, Issue 4, October 2005
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2011152View Description Hide Description
This paper presents the development of a wave-based room-prediction model for predicting steady-state sound fields in empty rooms with specularly reflecting, multilayer surfaces. A triangular beam-tracing model with phase, and a transfer-matrix approach to model the surfaces, were involved. Room surfaces were modeled as multilayers of fluid, solid, or porous materials. Biot theory was used in the transfer-matrix formulation of the porous layer. The new model consisted of the transfer-matrix model integrated into the beam-tracing algorithm. The transfer-matrix model was validated by comparing predictions with those by theory, and with experiment. The test surfaces were a glass plate, double drywall panels, double steel panels, a carpeted floor, and a suspended-acoustical ceiling. The beam-tracing model was validated in the cases of three idealized room configurations—a small office, a corridor, and a small industrial workroom—with simple boundary conditions. The number of beams, the reflection order, and the frequency resolution required to obtain accurate results were investigated. Beam-tracing predictions were compared with those by a method-of-images model with phase. The model will be used to study sound fields in rooms with local- or extended-reaction multilayer surfaces.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2036222View Description Hide Description
Helmholtz resonators are often used to reduce noise. They are particularly useful when noise has a narrow frequency band. In this study we aim to broaden its narrow band characteristics by combining many resonators. Serial and parallel arrangements of resonators have been tested to obtain broader impedance mismatch characteristics in the broader band. Theoretical and experimental results explain these characteristics in the absence of mean flow. The serial arrangement mainly increases the peak of TL at the resonance frequency. But the parallel arrangement logarithmically increases the peak of TL and expands the bandwidth. The change of acoustic characteristics is explained by introducing an “equivalent impedance analysis.” This shows that the transmission loss has a maximum value when the distance between resonators is of its wavelength. In this study we propose a novel design method that optimizes the arrangement of resonators while keeping the volume minimized. Various transmission loss characteristics are possible when we select different objective functions under constraints.