Index of content:
Volume 119, Issue 1, January 2006
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2139654View Description Hide Description
The near-ground behavior of the low-frequency sound field in the nocturnal sound duct is studied theoretically and experimentally. In the first few meters of the atmosphere, narrow-band sound fields are found to have a characteristic vertical structure. The sound field is the superposition of a “surface mode,” whose magnitude decreases monotonically with altitude, with a sum of “higher modes,” each of whose magnitudes has a pronounced minimum a few meters from the ground at approximately the same height. The surface mode attenuates to negligible levels after a few hundred meters from the source. Consequently, more than a few hundred meters from a narrow-band source, there is a “quiet height” at which the sound level is reduced by relative to its value on the ground. The narrow-band quiet height is shown to be a robust feature of nocturnal sound propagation.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2141130View Description Hide Description
Time-harmonic exterior acoustic problems are solved by using a singular meshless method in this paper. It is well known that the source points cannot be located on the real boundary, when the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is used due to the singularity of the adopted kernel functions. Hence, if the source points are right on the boundary the diagonal terms of the influence matrices cannot be derived. Herein we present an approach to obtain the diagonal terms of the influence matrices of the MFS for the numerical treatment of exterior acoustics. By using the regularization technique to regularize the singularity and hypersingularity of the proposed kernel functions, the source points can be located on the real boundary and therefore the diagonal terms of influence matrices are determined. We also maintain the prominent features of the MFS, that it is free from mesh, singularity, and numerical integration. The normal derivative of the fundamental solution of the Helmholtz equation is composed of a two-point function, which is one of the radial basis functions. The solution of the problem is expressed in terms of a double-layer potential representation on the physical boundary based on the potential theory. The solutions of three selected examples are used to compare with the results of the exact solution, conventional MFS, boundary element method, and Dirichlet-to-Neumann finite element method. Good numerical performance is demonstrated by close agreement with other solutions.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2139626View Description Hide Description
This paper investigates the noise radiated by a cascade of flat-plate airfoils interacting with homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. An analytic formulation for the spectrum of acoustic power of a two-dimensional flat-plate is derived. The main finding of this paper is that the acoustic power spectrum from the cascade of flat airfoils may be split into two distinct frequency regions of low frequency and high frequency, separated by a critical frequency. Below this frequency, cascade effects due to the interaction between neighboring airfoils are shown to be important. At frequencies above the critical frequency, cascade effects are shown to be relatively weak. In this frequency range, acoustic power is shown to be approximately proportional to the number of blades. Based on this finding at high frequencies, an approximate expression is derived for the power spectrum that is valid above the critical frequency and which is in excellent agreement with the exact expression for the broadband power spectrum. The formulation is used to perform a parametric study on the effects on the power spectrum of the blade number, stagger angle, gap-chord ratio, and Mach number. The theory is also shown to provide a close fit to the measured spectrum of rotor-stator interaction.