Index of content:
Volume 119, Issue 1, January 2006
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2139629View Description Hide Description
A questionnaire is developed to evaluate perception of the listening environment by university students. The objectives were to develop a questionnaire-based measurement tool, derive a measure of perceived classroom-listening quality, use the questionnaire to investigate factors that enhance, impair, or do not affect perceived listening quality, and consider the implications for classroom design. The questionnaire was administered to over 5700 students in 30 classrooms at one university. Physical and acoustical measurements were also performed in each classroom. The questionnaire included items that recorded aspects of student perception, as well as individual, course-, and instructor-specific factors. Responses to 19 perception items generated a perception of listening ease (PLE) score for each student and a classroom-average score. Decreased PLE was associated with women, English-second-language students, those with hearing impairment, students not interested in the course material, and those who found the material difficult. Increased PLE was associated with higher speech transmission index, acceptable lighting, temperature and seating, better instructor voice, increased visual-aid use, and easier course material. Results indicate that PLE is a useful measure of student perception of the classroom-listening environment, and that optimal classroom acoustical design must take into consideration “in-use” conditions, as well as classroom physical characteristics.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2139632View Description Hide Description
A room acoustic diffuser breaks up reflected wavefronts, and this can be achieved by presenting a spatially varying surface impedance. In hybrid surfaces, varying impedance is achieved by patches of absorption and reflection, giving reflection coefficients nominally of 0 and 1. These surfaces are hybrids, absorbing some of the incident sound while diffusing any reflected energy. A problem with planar hybrid surfaces is that specular energy is only removed by absorption. By exploiting interference, by reflecting waves out-of-phase with the specular energy, it is possible to diminish the specular energy further. This can be achieved by using a diffuser based on a ternary sequence that nominally has reflection coefficients of 0, , and . Ternary sequences are therefore a way of forming hybrid absorber-diffusers that achieve better scattering performance without additional absorption. This paper discusses methods for making ternary sequence diffusers, including giving sequence generation methods. It presents prediction results based on Fourier and boundary element method models to examine the performance. While ternary diffusers have better performance than unipolar binary diffusers at most frequencies, there are frequencies at which the performances are the same. This can be overcome by forming diffusers from four-level, quadriphase sequences.