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A structurally guided method for the decomposition of expression in music performance
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Score of the Beethoven Paisiello theme.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Performances at each tempo, plotting score position against eighth-note IOI in seconds.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

A schematic depiction of a score, its structural annotation, the profiles for each structural unit, and how they combine into a prediction to be compared with performance data. The bottom panel illustrates how the structure is expressed as a matrix reflecting the linear combinations of parameters that constitute the model and is used for the regression analysis.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Observed and predicted IOIs plotted against a score annotated with phrase, bar, and noncontiguous segments (; ; C-R=). Phrase segments are identified by their duration in score time measured in eighth notes. Note that the axis is warped to align with the musical notation.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The decomposition of the expressive profiles: the axis shows score position, the axis the parameter values (in eighth note IOIs in seconds). The names of the structural units are displayed to the right of each profile. Score annotations as in Fig. 4. Note that the axis is warped to align with the musical notation, distorting the canonically regular shape of the profiles.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Panel of the shapes component profiles in the three tempi. Here only one repetition of each profile is shown, and the magnitudes on the and y axes are normalized for easy comparison of shapes. Reference lines have been added to show proportional tempo predictions for slow and fast tempi taking medium tempo as the baseline.


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Structural units and their duration, shape (* is a breakpoint clamped to zero, o is a breakpoint controlled by a free parameter), and number of (free) parameters.

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Explained variance, significance of fit, size (in proportion to the sd of the observed performance), explained variance in stepwise residues, and the number of parameters of each structural component and the complete model.

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The explained variance and the significance of the contribution of the structural units in each tempo.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A structurally guided method for the decomposition of expression in music performance