Characterizing glottal jet turbulence
(Color online) Mounted excised larynx with adduction prongs pushing arytenoids, hot-wire sensor positioned over the glottis midline.
(Color online) A few cycles of the typically recorded signals, including from top to bottom: Electroglottograph (EGG), subglottal pressure (Ps), tracheal velocity (Vs), and glottal exit jet velocity (Vj).
(Color online) Turbulence averaging for a low-jitter larynx (0.05%). In the top graph (a) data points of instantaneous velocity (circles) and averaged signals are plotted together for three cycles. These are the smoothed velocity (solid line), wavelet denoised (dashed), and ensemble-averaged (dash-dot-dot) velocities. The corresponding turbulent velocity fluctuations are graphed below them [(b), (c), (d)].
(Color online) Glottis hydraulic diameter as a function of flow rate for four excised larynges.
(Color online) Aerodynamic ranges of the excised canine larynges. The graph shows the ranges for the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers for all excised larynges used in this study.
(Color online) Turbulence averaging for a high-jitter larynx (5.89%). The descriptions of the signals are the same as Fig. 3.
(Color online) Turbulence averaging for a very high-jitter larynx (12.35%). The descriptions of the signals are the same as Fig. 3.
(Color online) Effects of the wavelet denoising level on the turbulence averaging. The solid lines represent turbulence intensity and dashed lines represent cross-correlation coefficient of the denoised and original signal for the three larynges of Table I.
(Color online) Power spectra comparison of the deterministic and turbulent fluctuation velocities for the three methods. (a) smoothing method; (b) for wavelet denoising, and (c) for the ensemble-averaging method.
(Color online) Turbulent intensities in an oscillating larynx with various adduction levels as a function of subglottal pressure.
(Color online) Turbulent intensity as a function of Reynolds number for four excised larynges.
(Color online) Turbulent intensity as a function of Strouhal number for four excised larynges.
A comparison of the turbulence-averaging methods. Column 4 indicates the model with the value of “SMZ” for smoothing and “ENS” for the ensemble averaging; otherwise it is for wavelet denoising. Column 5 (Par) is the number of cycles for smoothing or ensemble averaging; otherwise it is the level of the wavelet denoising. Tint is the turbulent intensity, is the time average of velocity fluctuations, and CCOR is the cross-correlation between denoised and original velocity signals.
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