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A constitutive model of the human vocal fold cover for fundamental frequency regulation
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) A schematic representation of molecular networks in the vocal fold extracellular matrix (ECM) following Ref. 26. (b) A one-dimensional rheological representation of the constitutive model, with a hyperelastic equilibrium network (A) in parallel with an inelastic network (B).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic of the experimental setup for uniaxial tensile stretch-release test of vocal fold tissues using a dual-mode servo-control lever system.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Experimental tensile stress-stretch response at loading frequency of : (a) male vocal fold cover specimens and (b) female vocal fold cover specimens ( in years).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison between experimental data (———) and simulation results (———) of tensile stress-stretch response at : (a) male specimens and and (b) female specimens and .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Age dependence of the model parameters for the male specimens: (a) initial shear modulus of the equilibrium network , (b) power in the Ogden model , (c) ratio between the stiffness of the time-dependent network relative to the stiffness of the equilibrium network , and (d) the viscosity scaling constant . Dotted lines are the 95% confidence intervals of the curve-fitting exponential functions.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Dependence of the predicted normalized fundamental frequency on applied tensile stretch based on Eqs. (10) and (16). Predictions are shown for a young adult male , an old adult male , and a linear elastic model (Hooke's law).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Dependence of the predicted fundamental frequency on age for (a) male specimens and (b) female specimens. Data points represent individual specimens of the present study. Two trend-lines depict approximately the change in speaking fundamental frequency with age as reported by Brown et al. 37 and Krook38

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Predicted time course of for a stretch history and a loading frequency of . Simulation conducted with constitutive parameters of the 99-year-old male specimen with .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Predicted dependence of the characteristic time constant of relaxation on the applied stretch for (a) male specimens and (b) female specimens. Loading .


Generic image for table

Summary of the parameters of the constitutive model and values for comparison of experimental data and constitutive description.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A constitutive model of the human vocal fold cover for fundamental frequency regulation