(a) A schematic representation of molecular networks in the vocal fold extracellular matrix (ECM) following Ref. 26. (b) A one-dimensional rheological representation of the constitutive model, with a hyperelastic equilibrium network (A) in parallel with an inelastic network (B).
Schematic of the experimental setup for uniaxial tensile stretch-release test of vocal fold tissues using a dual-mode servo-control lever system.
Experimental tensile stress-stretch response at loading frequency of : (a) male vocal fold cover specimens and (b) female vocal fold cover specimens ( in years).
Comparison between experimental data (———) and simulation results (———) of tensile stress-stretch response at : (a) male specimens and and (b) female specimens and .
Age dependence of the model parameters for the male specimens: (a) initial shear modulus of the equilibrium network , (b) power in the Ogden model , (c) ratio between the stiffness of the time-dependent network relative to the stiffness of the equilibrium network , and (d) the viscosity scaling constant . Dotted lines are the 95% confidence intervals of the curve-fitting exponential functions.
Dependence of the predicted normalized fundamental frequency on applied tensile stretch based on Eqs. (10) and (16). Predictions are shown for a young adult male , an old adult male , and a linear elastic model (Hooke's law).
Dependence of the predicted fundamental frequency on age for (a) male specimens and (b) female specimens. Data points represent individual specimens of the present study. Two trend-lines depict approximately the change in speaking fundamental frequency with age as reported by Brown et al. 37 and Krook38
Predicted time course of for a stretch history and a loading frequency of . Simulation conducted with constitutive parameters of the 99-year-old male specimen with .
Predicted dependence of the characteristic time constant of relaxation on the applied stretch for (a) male specimens and (b) female specimens. Loading .
Summary of the parameters of the constitutive model and values for comparison of experimental data and constitutive description.
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