Volume 119, Issue 2, February 2006
Index of content:
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
Mechanism for bandpass frequency characteristic in distortion product otoacoustic emission generation119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2146088View Description Hide Description
It is commonly observed that the levels of the and the other distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) initially increase in level for fixed as , starting at , and then begin to decrease. When these DPOAE levels are plotted as a function of either the distortion product frequency or the curve has an approximate bandpass shape. It has been hypothesized that this effect is due to (1) a second filter, (2) suppression of distortion generation by the primary tones, (3) reemission of distortion products from the distortion product place (on the basilar membrane), (4) the presence of an even order nonlinearity, and (5) cancellation of the DPOAE due to the vector addition of multiple sources of distortion product. In this study distortion products were produced with sweep conditions where there would be minimal vector cancellation of multiple DPOAE sources. It was observed that under this condition, there is no or minimal bandpass shape of the DPOAE generation curve. Therefore, the data support the hypothesis that the bandpass shape obtained with traditional sweeps is due to vector cancellation from multiple sources.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2159428View Description Hide Description
A functional model of the cochlea is devised on the basis of the results from classical experiments. The basilar membrane filter is investigated in detail. Its phase is close to linear in the region around the peak of the amplification. On one side this has consequences for the time analysis and on the other side this has led to a prediction on phase perception for very simple combinations of tones, a prediction which is now confirmed by experiments. Equivariance under the dilation group permits one to describe the model by a wavelet transform [Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets (SIAM, Philadelphia, 1992)]. The wavelet is discussed in reference to the phase analysis of the basilar membrane filter.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2159434View Description Hide Description
Some birds make use of a distensible oral cavity to produce nearly pure-tone song. Songbirds such as the Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) have a muscularly distended oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity between the top of the trachea and the open beak. The present paper analyzes the acoustics of this vocal system. It is shown that the resonance of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity, vented through the beak, introduces a dominant peak in the radiation efficiency, the frequency of which can be adjusted by varying the volume of the cavity, the beak gape, and perhaps the position of the tongue in the mouth. To produce nearly pure-tone song, the bird adjusts the frequency of this peak to coincide with the fundamental of the syringeal oscillation. The present paper provides the acoustical analysis underlying this behavior.