Index of content:
Volume 119, Issue 4, April 2006
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2170441View Description Hide Description
We report measurements on the synchronization properties of organ pipes. First, we investigate influence of an external acoustical signal from a loudspeaker on the sound of an organ pipe. Second, the mutual influence of two pipes with different pitch is analyzed. In analogy to the externally driven, or mutually coupled self-sustained oscillators, one observes a frequency locking, which can be explained by synchronization theory. Further, we measure the dependence of the frequency of the signals emitted by two mutually detuned pipes with varying distance between the pipes. The spectrum shows a broad “hump” structure, not found for coupled oscillators. This indicates a complex coupling of the two organ pipes leading to nonlinear beat phenomena.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2171516View Description Hide Description
The goal of this study was to excite and measure, in a noncontact manner, the vibrational modes of the reed from a reed organ pipe. To perform ultrasound stimulated excitation, the audio-range difference frequency between a pair of ultrasound beams produced a radiation force that induced vibrations. The resulting vibrational deflection shapes were measured with a scanning laser vibrometer. The resonances of any relatively small object can be studied in air using this technique. For a brass reed, displacements and velocities in excess of and could be imparted at the fundamental frequency of . Using the same ultrasound transducer, excitation across the entire range of audio frequencies was obtained. Since the beam was focused on the reed, ultrasound stimulated excitation eliminated background effects observed during mechanical shaker excitation, such as vibrations of clamps and supports. The results obtained using single, dual and confocal ultrasound transducers in AM and two-beam modes, along with results obtained using a mechanical shaker and audio excitation using a speaker are discussed.
Effect of the glottal source and the vocal tract on the partials amplitude of vibrato in male voices119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2177584View Description Hide Description
In this paper the production of vocal vibrato is investigated. The most relevant features of the acoustical vibrato signal, frequency and amplitude variations of the partials, will be related to the voice production features, glottal source (GS) and vocal tract response (VTR). Unlike previous related works, in this approach, the effect on the amplitude variations of the partials of each one of the above-mentioned voice production features will be identified in recordings of natural singingvoice. Moreover, we will take special care of the reliability of the measurements, and, to this aim, a noninteractive vibrato production model will be also proposed in order to describe the vibrato production process and, more importantly, validate the measurements carried out in natural vibrato. Based on this study, it will be shown that during a few vibrato cycles, the glottal pulse characteristics, as well as the VTR, do not significantly change, and only the fundamental frequency of the GS varies. As a result, the pitch variations can be attributed to the GS, and these variations, along with the vocal tract filtering effect, will result in frequency and amplitude variations of the acoustic signal partials.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2168548View Description Hide Description
This paper deals with the computational analysis of musical audio from recorded audio waveforms. This general problem includes, as subtasks, musictranscription, extraction of musical pitch,dynamics,timbre, instrument identity, and source separation. Analysis of real musical signals is a highly ill-posed task which is made complicated by the presence of transient sounds, background interference, or the complex structure of musical pitches in the time-frequency domain. This paper focuses on models and algorithms for computer transcription of multiple musical pitches in audio, elaborated from previous work by two of the authors. The audio data are supposedly presegmented into fixed pitch regimes such as individual chords. The models presented apply to pitched (tonal) music and are formulated via a Gabor representation of nonstationary signals. A Bayesian probabilistic structure is employed for representation of prior information about the parameters of the notes. This paper introduces a numerical Bayesian inference strategy for estimation of the pitches and other parameters of the waveform. The improved algorithm is much quicker and makes the approach feasible in realistic situations. Results are presented for estimation of a known number of notes present in randomly generated note clusters from a real musical instrument database.