Index of content:
Volume 119, Issue 4, April 2006
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2173516View Description Hide Description
Analytical and computer simulation studies have shown that the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract as well as the viscoelastic properties of vocal foldtissues are critical for determining the dynamics and the energy transfer mechanism of vocal fold oscillation. In the present study, a linear, small-amplitude oscillation theory was revised by taking into account the propagation of a mucosal wave and the inertive reactance (inertance) of the supraglottal vocal tract as the major energy transfer mechanisms for flow-induced self-oscillation of the vocal fold. Specifically, analytical results predicted that phonation threshold pressure increases with the viscous shear properties of the vocal fold, but decreases with vocal tract inertance. This theory was empirically tested using a physical model of the larynx, where biological materials (fat, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin) were implanted into the vocal fold cover to investigate the effect of vocal foldtissueviscoelasticity on . A uniform-tube supraglottal vocal tract was also introduced to examine the effect of vocal tract inertance on . Results showed that decreased with the inertive impedance of the vocal tract and increased with the viscous shear modulus or dynamic viscosity of the vocal fold cover, consistent with theoretical predictions. These findings supported the potential biomechanical benefits of hyaluronic acid as a surgical bioimplant for repairing voice disorders involving the superficial layer of the lamina propria, such as scarring, sulcus vocalis, atrophy, and Reinke’s edema.
Vocal responses to unanticipated perturbations in voice loudness feedback: An automatic mechanism for stabilizing voice amplitude119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2173513View Description Hide Description
The present study tested whether subjects respond to unanticipated short perturbations in voiceloudness feedback with compensatory responses in voice amplitude. The role of stimulus magnitude ( vs SPL), stimulus direction (up vs down), and the ongoing voice amplitude level (normal vs soft) were compared across compensations. Subjects responded to perturbations in voiceloudness feedback with a compensatory change in voice amplitude 76% of the time. Mean latency of amplitude compensation was . Mean response magnitudes were smallest for stimulus perturbations and greatest for conditions . However, expressed as gain, responses for perturbations were largest and almost approached 1.0. Response magnitudes were larger for the soft voice amplitude condition compared to the normal voice amplitude condition. A mathematical model of the audio-vocal system captured the main features of the compensations. Previous research has demonstrated that subjects can respond to an unanticipated perturbation in voice pitch feedback with an automatic compensatory response in voice fundamental frequency. Data from the present study suggest that voiceloudness feedback can be used in a similar manner to monitor and stabilize voice amplitude around a desired loudness level.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2173520View Description Hide Description
Exploring the compensatory responses of the speech production system to perturbation has provided valuable insights into speech motor control. The present experiment was conducted to examine compensation for one such perturbation—a palatal perturbation in the production of the fricative /s/. Subjects wore a specially designed electropalatographic (EPG) appliance with a buildup of acrylic over the alveolar ridge as well as a normal EPG palate. In this way, compensatory tongue positioning could be assessed during a period of target specific and intense practice and compared to nonperturbed conditions. Electropalatographic, acoustic, and perceptual analyses of productions of /asa/ elicited from nine speakers over the course of a one-hour practice period were conducted. Acoustic and perceptual results confirmed earlier findings, which showed improvement in production with a thick artificial palate in place over the practice period; the EPG data showed overall increased maximum contact as well as increased medial and posterior contact for speakers with the thick palate in place, but little change over time. Negative aftereffects were observed in the productions with the thin palate, indicating recalibration of sensorimotor processes in the face of the oral-articulatory perturbation. Findings are discussed with regard to the nature of adaptive articulatory skills.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2178720View Description Hide Description
Following research that found imitation in single-word shadowing, this study examines the degree to which interacting talkers increase similarity in phonetic repertoire during conversational interaction. Between-talker repetitions of the same lexical items produced in a conversational task were examined for phonetic convergence by asking a separate set of listeners to detect similarity in pronunciation across items in a perceptual task. In general, a listener judged a repeated item spoken by one talker in the task to be more similar to a sample production spoken by the talker’s partner than corresponding pre- and postinteraction utterances. Both the role of a participant in the task and the sex of the pair of talkers affected the degree of convergence. These results suggest that talkers in conversational settings are susceptible to phonetic convergence, which can mark nonlinguistic functions in social discourse and can form the basis for phenomena such as accent change and dialect formation.