Volume 119, Issue 6, June 2006
Index of content:
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2197798View Description Hide Description
Vocal fold impact pressures were studied using a self-oscillating finite-element model capable of simulating vocal fold vibration and airflow. The calculated airflow pressure is applied on the vocal fold as the driving force. The airflow region is then adjusted according to the calculated vocal fold displacement. The interaction between airflow and the vocal folds produces a self-oscillating solution. Lung pressures between 0.2 and were used to drive this self-oscillating model. The spatial distribution of the impact pressure was studied. Studies revealed that the tissue collision during phonation produces a very large impact pressure which correlates with the lung pressure and glottal width. Larger lung pressure and a narrower glottal width increase the impact pressure. The impact pressure was found to be roughly the square root of lung pressure. In the inferior-superior direction, the maximum impact pressure is related to the narrowest glottis. In the anterior-posteriorfirection, the greatest impact pressure appears at the midpoint of the vocal fold. The match between our numerical simulations and clinical observations suggests that this self-oscillating finite-element model might be valuable for predicting mechanical trauma of the vocal folds.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2195268View Description Hide Description
Experiments were performed to study the production of broadband sound in confined pulsating jets through orifices with a time-varying area. The goal was to better understand broadband sound generation at the human glottis during voicing. The broadband component was extracted from measured sound signals by the elimination of the periodic component through ensemble averaging. Comparisons were made between the probability density functions of the broadband sound in pulsating jets and of comparable stationary jets. The results indicate that the quasi-steady approximation may be valid for the broadband component when the turbulence is well established and the turbulence kinetic energy is comparatively large. A waveletanalysis of the broadband sound showed that random sound production was modulated at the driving frequency. Two distinct sound production peaks were observed during one cycle, presumably associated firstly with jet formation and secondly with flow deceleration during orifice closing. Most high-frequency sound was produced during the closing phase. Deviations from quasi-steady behavior were observed. As the driving frequency increased, sound production during the opening phase was reduced, possibly due to the shorter time available for turbulence to develop. These results may be useful for better quality voice synthesis.
119(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2195267View Description Hide Description
Although the pitch of the human voice is continuously variable, some linguists contend that intonation in speech is restricted to a small, limited set of patterns. This claim is tested by asking subjects to mimic a block of 100 randomly generated intonation contours and then to imitate themselves in several successive sessions. The produced contours gradually converge towards a limited set of distinct, previously recognized basic English intonation patterns. These patterns are “attractors” in the space of possible intonation English contours. The convergence does not occur immediately. Seven of the ten participants show continued convergence toward their attractors after the first iteration. Subjects retain and use information beyond phonological contrasts, suggesting that intonational phonology is not a complete description of their mental representation of intonation.