Volume 120, Issue 1, July 2006
Index of content:
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
Simulated effects of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle activation on adult-male vocal fold vibration120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2204442View Description Hide Description
Adjustments to cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle activation are critical to the control of fundamental frequency and aerodynamic aspects of vocal fold vibration in humans. The aerodynamic and physical effects of these muscles are not well understood and are difficult to study in vivo. Knowledge of the contributions of these two muscles is essential to understanding both normal and disordered voice physiology. In this study, a three-mass model for voice simulation in adult males was used to produce systematic changes to cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle activation levels. Predicted effects on fundamental frequency, aerodynamic quantities, and physical quantities of vocal fold vibration were assessed. Certain combinations of these muscle activations resulted in aerodynamic and physical characteristics of vibration that might increase the mechanical stress placed on the vocal fold tissue.
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2203592View Description Hide Description
Although electrolarynx (EL) serves as an important method of phonation for the laryngectomees, the resulting speech is of poor intelligibility due to the presence of a steady background noise caused by the instrument, even worse in the case of additive noise. This paper investigates the problem of ELspeech enhancement by taking into account the frequency-domain masking properties of the human auditory system. One approach is incorporating an auditory masking threshold (AMT) for parametric adaptation in a subtractive-type enhancement process. The other is the supplementary AMT (SAMT) algorithm, which applies a cross-correlation spectral subtraction (CCSS) approach as a post-processing scheme to enhancing ELspeech dealt with the AMT method. The performance of these two algorithms was evaluated as compared to the power spectral subtraction (PSS) algorithm. The best performance of ELspeech enhancement was associated with the SAMT algorithm, followed by the AMT algorithm and the PSS algorithm. Acoustic and perceptual analyses indicated that the AMT and SAMT algorithms achieved the better performances of noise reduction and the enhanced ELspeech was more pleasant to human listeners as compared to the PSS algorithm.
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2205133View Description Hide Description
Ultrasound imaging of the tongue is increasingly common in speech production research. However, there has been little standardization regarding the quantification and statistical analysis of ultrasound data. In linguistic studies, researchers may want to determine whether the tongue shape for an articulation under two different conditions (e.g., consonants in word-final versus word-medial position) is the same or different. This paper demonstrates how the smoothing spline ANOVA (SS ANOVA) can be applied to the comparison of tongue curves [Gu, Smoothing Spline ANOVA Models (Springer, New York, 2002)]. The SS ANOVA is a technique for determining whether or not there are significant differences between the smoothing splines that are the best fits for two data sets being compared. If the interaction term of the SS ANOVA model is statistically significant, then the groups have different shapes. Since the interaction may be significant even if only a small section of the curves are different (i.e., the tongue root is the same, but the tip of one group is raised), Bayesian confidence intervals are used to determine which sections of the curves are statistically different. SS ANOVAs are illustrated with some data comparing obstruents produced in word-final and word-medial coda position.