banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Acoustic properties of humpback whale songs
Rent this article for


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Experimental geometry showing a singing humpback whale and the vertical array of hydrophones.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Spectrogram and waveform representation of the nine units contained in the humpback whale songs during the winter season in Hawaiian waters in 2002. The units were from the recordings of several whales and were chosen because they showed the characteristics of the unit most clearly.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Tracks of three singing humpback whales from the boat carrying the vertical line array. The numbers next to the points are the order of the localization with 1 being the first localization. The time shown on each plot is the total amount of time the whale was localized. The circles on the left vertical axis represent the hydrophones in the line array.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The mean and standard deviation of the rms source level of the different units for the three whales tracked in Fig. 3. The means that are enclosed within a dashed oval are not significantly different. All other units are significantly different at .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The rms source level for the unit having the highest intensity for each of the three whales tracked in Fig. 3.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Spectrogram showing the frequency versus time variation of unit H sounds and corresponding frequency spectra plotting relative amplitude as a function of frequency. The plots depict the high-frequency nature of unit H sounds showing harmonics extending beyond for three different whales.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Polar plot of the rms source level for whale E4 projecting a unit H sound and for whale L2 projecting a unit sound.


Generic image for table

Aural description of the nine units for the humpback whale songs during the 2002 wintering season in Hawaii.

Generic image for table

The general sequence of units producing the four themes observed in the recordings of nine singers. There is considerable variability in a theme associated with the number of or sequence of the units. The units in parentheses are those that are repeated seemingly randomly from one to seven times, depending on the specific whale.

Generic image for table

Results of source level estimation for the three whales whose tracks are shown in Fig. 3. The unit for and is dB and the unit for SE is dB .


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Acoustic properties of humpback whale songs