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The influence of subglottal acoustics on laboratory models of phonation
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10.1121/1.2225682
/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/3/10.1121/1.2225682
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/3/10.1121/1.2225682
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of the experimental apparatus.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Magnitude and phase of the reflection factor of the expansion chamber.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Measured phonation fundamental frequency as a function of the tracheal length. Closed symbols : measured; : second onset frequency measured if more than two frequencies are observed; open symbols: subglottal resonance frequency calculated using the measured reflection factor (: first resonance; : second resonance; ; third resonance; ; fourth resonance); —: prediction from theory.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Sound pressure amplitude (dB) in the subglottal tube as a function of the tracheal length and mean subglottal pressure in (a) increasing-flow and (b) decreasing-flow steps. Regions of various onset regimes are labeled for: 1. irregular phonation; 2. weak supercritical; 3 weak subcritical; 4. strong subcritical; 5. mixed types. The sound pressure amplitude in dB is represented by the gray scale.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Sound pressure amplitude (left) and power spectra (right) for increasing and decreasing subglottal pressure at four typical onset types: (a) irregular; (b) weak supercritical; (c) weak subcritical; and (d) strong subcritical. : increasing subglottal pressure; : decreasing subglottal pressure. The power spectral amplitude in dB is represented by the gray scale.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Sound pressure amplitude (left) and power spectra (right) for increasing and decreasing subglottal pressure. Tracheal length . Two types of onset can be observed with a supercritical onset followed by a subcritical onset. : increasing subglottal pressure; : decreasing subglottal pressure. The power spectral amplitude in dB is represented by the gray scale.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Sound pressure amplitude (left) and power spectra (right) for increasing and decreasing subglottal pressure. Tracheal length . Two types of onset with different fundamental frequencies can be observed with a supercritical onset followed by a subcritical onset, : increasing subglottal pressure; : decreasing subglottal pressure. The power spectral amplitude in dB is represented by the gray scale.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Time history of a medial-lateral strip of the vocal folds at the center during the two types of onset shown in Fig. 7. Left figure: onset with high : right figure: onset with low . Note that there is a phase difference between the left and right vocal folds.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Measured phonation onset (closed symbols) and offset (open symbols) threshold subglottal pressure as a function of the tracheal length.—: predicted onset threshold pressure from theory. : major onset; : weak or supercritical onset for cases where more than one onset is observed.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Simplified model of the vocal folds and subglottal system. The vocal folds are modeled as a symmetric spring-mass-damping system.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(a) Fundamental frequency of vocal fold vibration and (b) corresponding effective damping induced by the subglottal system as a function of the product of wave number and tracheal length for an open-ended and lossless trachea tube. —: solution curve; – - –: (a) natural frequency of the vocal folds and (b) critical effective damping at which the equality in Eq. (A11) is reached; : for ; shaded area: regions possible for phonation onset.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/3/10.1121/1.2225682
2006-09-01
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The influence of subglottal acoustics on laboratory models of phonation
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/3/10.1121/1.2225682
10.1121/1.2225682
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