Index of content:
Volume 120, Issue 3, September 2006
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2225682View Description Hide Description
Many previous laboratory investigations of phonation involving physical models, excised larynges, and in vivo canine larynges have failed to fully specify the subglottal system. Many of these same studies have reported a variety of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations (e.g., various classes of phonation onset and offset, register changes, frequency jumps), subharmonics, and chaos, and attributed such phenomena to the biomechanical properties of the larynx. However, such nonlinear phenomena may also be indicative of strong coupling between the voice source and the subglottal tract. Consequently, in such studies, it has not been clear whether the underlying mechanisms of such nonlinear phenomena were acoustical, biomechanical, or a coupling of the acoustical and biomechanical systems. Using a physical model of vocal fold vibration, and tracheal tube lengths which have been commonly reported in the literature, it is hypothesized and subsequently shown that such nonlinear phenomena may be replicated solely on the basis of laryngeal interactions with the acoustical resonances of the subglottal system. Recommendations are given for ruling out acoustical resonances as the source of nonlinear phenomena in future laboratory studies of phonation.
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2221546View Description Hide Description
In this paper, a finite-elementmodel is used to simulate anterior-posterior biphonation [Neubauer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am.110(6), 3179–3192 (2001)]. The anterior-posterior stiffness asymmetric factor and the anterior-posterior shape asymmetric factor describe the asymmetry properties of vocal folds. Spatiotemporal plot, spectral analysis, anterior-posterior fundamental frequency ratio, cross covariation function, and correlation length quantitatively estimate the spatial asymmetry of vocal fold oscillations. Calculation results show that the anterior-posterior stiffness asymmetry decreases the spatialcoherence of vocal fold vibration. When the stiffness asymmetry reaches a certain level, the drop in spatialcoherence desynchronizes the vibration modes. The anterior and posterior sides of the vocal fold oscillate with two independent fundamental frequencies ( and ). The complex spectral characteristics of vocal fold vibration under biphonation conditions can be explained by the linear combination of and . Empirical orthogonal eigenfunctions prove the existence of higher-order anterior-posterior modes when anterior-posterior biphonation occurs. Then, it is found that the anterior-posterior shape asymmetry also decreases the spatialcoherence of vocal fold vibration, and shape asymmetry is a possible reason for anterior-posterior biphonation.
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2215408View Description Hide Description
This paper ranks the importance of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms in glottalflow. Particular emphasis is given to separation point motion,acceleration of glottal airflow by vocal fold motion, and viscous blockage. How nondimensional parameters such as the Reynolds, Strouhal, and Womersley numbers help in this ranking is also addressed. An equation of motion is derived which includes terms explicitly describing the effects of interest, assuming (1) a symmetrical glottis, (2) zero pressure recovery downstream of the vocal folds, and (3) a quasisteady glottal jet. Estimating the order of magnitude of the terms in this equation, it is shown that the flow is characterized by two temporal regimes: (1) a flow initiation/shutoff regime where local unsteady acceleration and wall motion dominate, and (2) a “quasisteady” regime where the flow is dominated by convective acceleration. In the latter case, separation point motion and viscous blockage are shown to be out of phase with motion of the vocal folds, thereby impacting the shape of the glottal volume flow waveform. The analysis suggests that glottalflow may be considered quasisteady only insofar as traditional assumptions concerning glottal jet behavior can be confirmed.
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2217135View Description Hide Description
Acoustic lengthening at prosodic boundaries is well explored, and the articulatory bases for this lengthening are becoming better understood. However, the temporal scope of prosodic boundary effects has not been examined in the articulatory domain. The few acoustic studies examining the distribution of lengthening indicate that boundary effects extend from one to three syllables before the boundary, and that effects diminish as distance from the boundary increases. This diminishment is consistent with the -gesture model of prosodic influence [Byrd and Saltzman, J. Phonetics31, 149–180 (2003)]. The present experiment tests the preboundary and postboundary scope of articulatory lengthening at an intonational phrase boundary. Movement-tracking data are used to evaluate durations of consonant closing and opening movements, acceleration durations, and consonant spatial magnitude. Results indicate that prosodic boundary effects exist locally near the phrase boundary in both directions, diminishing in magnitude more remotely for those subjects who exhibit extended effects. Small postboundary effects that are compensatory in direction are also observed.