(Color online) Left anterolateral view of the head of a female neonate Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris). The image was reconstructed from CT scans by segmentation of the anatomical structures. The structural color scheme is as follows: ; ; blue; ; left pterygoid ; left tympanoperiotic .
(Color online) The head within the computational volume or “box.” The frontal view is in the right panel, and right lateral view is in the left panel. The soft tissues are displayed with some transparency to reveal the internal structure, especially the pterygoid sinuses (air cavities) in green, and the high-density tympanoperiotic complexes (ear bones) in magenta. The horizontal slice location is indicated with “HA” in the right panel. The vertical slice locations (perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the animal) are indicated with “VA,” “VB,” “VC,” and “VD” in the left panel. The geometry is shown at the sample resolution corresponding to the finest mesh used in this paper . Some visible artifacts appear, for instance the topographic curves along the surface of the mandible in the left panel.
Total energy in the computational box, including the surrounding water, as a function of time. The legend refers to the number of finite elements in the longitudinal direction . The curves are ordered top to bottom as in the legend: the coarsest mesh is stiffer than the finest .
The convergence plot for the total energy at steady state. Richardson extrapolation was used to estimate the converged total energy. The convergence rate is approximately 2.19.
(Color online) Pressure distribution for horizontal slice (HA) through the sinuses and the ear bones after the steady state has been reached. The left side of the animal is toward the top of the frame and the front of the animal is to the right of the frame. Light shade corresponds to positive pressure, dark shade corresponds to negative pressure, the pterygoid sinuses are shown in green, and the bony ear complexes in purple. The outlines of the skull bones are in red.
(Color online) Pressure distribution at the same time as in Fig. 5. Vertical slices at different stations in the longitudinal direction along the sinus. (The locations of slices VA, VB, VC, and VD, are noted in Fig. 2. Light shade corresponds to positive pressure, dark shade corresponds to negative pressure, the pterygoid sinuses are shown in green, the bony ear complexes in purple, and the skull bones are outlined in red.
(Color online) Energy dissipation density. Vertical slices at different stations in the longitudinal direction. (The location of each slice VA, VB, VC, and VD is shown in Fig. 2.) Light gray shades correspond to high density of energy dissipation, darker shade corresponds to lower density. The pterygoid sinuses are shown in green, the bony ear complexes in purple, and the skull bones are outlined in red.
(Color online) Maximum principal stretch displayed on vertical slices through the mesh. (The locations of the slices are displayed in Fig. 2.) High values (light shades) occur in the vicinity of the bone. Note that the distribution of the maximum principal stretch correlates with the distribution of the highest density energy dissipation. The pterygoid sinuses are shown in green, the bony ear complexes in purple, and the skull bones are outlined in red.
Convergence of the local maximum of the point wise dissipated energy density. Finer meshes result in higher energy dissipation.
Maximum point wise largest principal stretch during the steady-state vibration. Four different meshes.
Tissue parameters used for model.
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