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Acoustic roles of the laryngeal cavity in vocal tract resonance
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10.1121/1.2261270
/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/4/10.1121/1.2261270
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/4/10.1121/1.2261270

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Geometry of the laryngeal cavity and its anatomical relation. (a) Lateral and front view of the hypopharyngeal cavities. (b) Anatomical regions of the laryngeal cavity.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Configuration of the vocal tract. (a) Vocal tract configuration. LC: laryngeal cavity, pVT: vocal tract proper, and wVT: whole vocal tract. (b) Positive direction of input impedance and susceptance for LC and pVT.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Vocal tract area functions for the five Japanese vowels /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, and /o/, measured in an adult male Japanese. The gray portion represents the laryngeal cavity.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Transfer functions of wVT (solid lines) and pVT (dashed lines).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Vocal tract transfer functions for five scale factors of the ventricular area. Peaks of F3, F4, and F5 across the five conditions are connected with dashed lines.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Vocal tract transfer functions for five scale factors of the vestibular area. Peaks of F3, F4, and F5 across the five conditions are connected with dashed lines.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The influence of small perturbations of the area functions on F4. The vertical axis indicates F4 frequency change at each section when the area is increased by 5% independently of the other sections. The horizontal axis represents the distance from the glottis. A dashed line at from the glottis indicates the LC-pVT junction.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Transfer function (TF), area function (AF), and resonance mode diagram at each formant for the vowel /a/. Solid lines represent the transfer function or the resonance modes of wVT, and dashed lines indicate those of pVT. A vertical dashed line situated at from the glottis indicates the LC-pVT junction. Note that the Y axis has no units because the amplitude of volume velocity is shown relative to the input volume velocity (1.0), and that the scale of the vertical axis of the resonance mode diagram differs across diagrams, because the maximum volume velocity has a large deviation.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Transfer function (TF), area function (AF), and resonance modes at each formant for the vowel /i/.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Transfer function (TF), area function (AF) and resonance modes at each formant for the vowel /u/.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Transfer function (TF), area function (AF), and resonance modes at each formant for the vowel /e/.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Transfer function (TF), area function (AF) and resonance modes at each formant for the vowel /o/.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Effective input end (E) of the vocal tract and the LC-pVT junction (J). (a) At the formants whose frequencies are lower than the resonance of LC, i.e., at F1, F2, and F3, the effective input end is located on the glottal side of the junction. (b) At the formants whose frequencies are higher than the resonance frequency of LC, i.e., at F5 and F6, the effective input end is on the labial side of the junction.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

The normalized susceptance of pVT; , with the thick line and the negative normalized susceptance of LC with the thin line. Small squares with F1p-F5p indicate zero crossings of , representing the formants of pVT. The circles with F1w-F6w are placed on the intersections of and , indicating the formants of wVT. The gray dashed lines are asymptotes of , i.e., zero frequencies of the pVT’s input impedance, where the open-tube resonances occur. The gray alternate long and short dashed line is an asymptote of , corresponding to the resonance frequency of LC.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Transfer functions of the vocal tract (dashed lines), those including the acoustic effects of the piriform fossae (bold lines), and cepstrum based speech spectra (thin lines).

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Equal interval area functions of the piriform fossae for the five vowels. Both right and left piriform fossae are connected with the vocal tract at the 11th section.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

The first six formant frequencies (Hz) of wVT for the five vowels.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

The first five formant frequencies (Hz) of pVT for the five vowels.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

The bandwidths (B3 and B4, in Hz) and amplitudes (A3 and A4, in dB) of the third and fourth formants of the vowel /i/, when the laryngeal ventricular area is changed according to the scale factor.

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

The bandwidths (B3 and B4, in Hz) and amplitudes (A3 and A4, in dB) of the third and fourth formants of the vowel /i/, when the laryngeal vestibular area is changed according to the scale factor.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

The percentage of the amount of the acoustic energy (kinetic and potential energies) in LC relative to that in the vocal tract for each vowel and for each formant.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/4/10.1121/1.2261270
2006-10-01
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Acoustic roles of the laryngeal cavity in vocal tract resonance
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/4/10.1121/1.2261270
10.1121/1.2261270
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