The vowel space of one French infant. and coordinates of each vowel produced by the infant are plotted. The bars represent mean and standard deviation of the center vowel. The most grave, acute, compact, and diffuse vowels are indicated by arrows.
Speech sample mean of each of four parameters (in mels) plotted for each infant as a function of age and language group, specifically (top left), SD (top right), (bottom left), and SD (bottom right).
Feature value for each infant’s corner vowels plotted as a function of age and language group, specifically diffuse (top left), grave (top right), acute (bottom left), and compact (bottom right).
Graphic summary of the findings for the English-learning infants (top) and French-learning infants (bottom). On both charts the arrow indicates the movement of the center of the vowel space as age increases from , the dotted-line quadrilaterals trace the periphery of the vowel space at , and the dashed-line quadrilaterals trace the periphery of the vowel space at .
Summary statistics for the limited range and full range simulated vowel space parameters for the 6-, 12-, and -old vocal tract.
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