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Factors affecting masking release for speech in modulated noise for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners
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10.1121/1.2266530
/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/4/10.1121/1.2266530
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/4/10.1121/1.2266530

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The temporal wave forms of the various background maskers: steady-state noise (2), speech-modulated noise (3), and four different forms of block-modulated noise (4–7). The temporal wave form of the SRTT condition (8, not shown) is similar to the wave form of condition (4), only with an adaptively changing duty cycle.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Hearing threshold, uncomfortable loudness level (UCL), and the masker spectrum in both normal (left panel) and adapted (right panel) spectral mode. Solid lines show the pure-tone hearing threshold (solid bold) and the masker spectrum (solid normal) for a listener without hearing loss. Dashed lines show the pure-tone hearing threshold (dashed bold) and the masker spectrum (dashed normal) for a typical listener with sloping hearing loss (upper panel) and flat hearing loss (lower panel). The UCL was set at SPL at all frequencies for all listeners and is marked by a straight solid bold line.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Average pure-tone hearing threshold (re:ISO-389-1991) and the range between the 5th and 95th percentiles for normal-hearing listeners (NHR) and two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (HI-S and HI-F). The overlap between HI-S and HI-F is displayed as a medium gray region.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

SRT in stationary noise vs SRT in modulated noise, defined as the mean SRT from four modulated noise conditions, in both normal (left panel) and adapted (right panel) spectral mode. Data are displayed for normal-hearing listeners (NHR), two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (HI-S and HI-F), and two groups of listeners with simulated hearing loss (SIM-S and SIM-F). The crosses in the lower right corners show the standard errors of measurement (SEM).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Difference between SRT in modulated noise and SRT in stationary noise (i.e., benefit) as a function of masker presentation level, in both normal (left panel) and adapted (right panel) spectral mode. Data are displayed for normal-hearing listeners (NHR), two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (HI-S and HI-F), and two groups of listeners with simulated hearing loss (SIM-S and SIM-F). The dotted lines are regression lines through all open symbols; the dashed lines represents the 5th and 95th percentiles. The bars in the lower right corners show the standard errors of measurement (SEM).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Spectral resolution (a) and temporal resolution (b) as a function of presentation level, for normal-hearing listeners (NHR), two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (HI-S and HI-F), and two groups of listeners with simulated hearing loss (SIM-S and SIM-F). The dotted lines are regression lines through all open symbols; the dashed lines represent the 5th and 95th percentiles. The bars in the lower right corners show the standard errors of measurement (SEM).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

SII in stationary noise vs SII in modulated noise, the latter defined as the mean SII in three 16-Hz modulated noise conditions, in both normal (left panel) and adapted (right panel) spectral mode. Data are displayed for normal-hearing listeners (NHR), two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (HI-S and HI-F), and two groups of listeners with simulated hearing loss (SIM-S and SIM-F). Dashed lines represent the one-tailed 95th percentiles for all open symbols.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

SII-values in stationary noise and in four modulated background noise conditions, in both normal (upper panel) and adapted (lower panel) spectral mode. Data are displayed for normal-hearing listeners (NHR), two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (HI-S and HI-F), and two groups of listeners with simulated hearing loss (SIM-S and SIM-F). Dashed lines represent the 5th and 95th percentiles of the open symbols. Participants in each of the five different groups have been assigned a different displacement along the axis for visual clarity.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Details on the temporal characteristics of the masking noises. For the block-modulated maskers, nondefault values are displayed in bold-italics. The temporal wave forms of the various background maskers are shown in Fig. 1. Not mentioned is the SRBT, which was measured for a subset of listeners. For more details on the SRTT and the SRBT, see the text.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Group results on speech reception thresholds (SRT) for normal-hearing listeners (NHR), two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (HI-S and HI-F), and two groups of listeners with simulated hearing loss (SIM-S and SIM-F). is the average SRT over the four block-modulated masker conditions (conditions 4–7). Benefit is the difference between and the SRT measured in stationary noise (condition 2).

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Group averages of measured spectral resolution , temporal resolution , SRBT, SRTT, age, and pure-tone average (PTA), the latter defined as the average pure-tone hearing threshold at octave frequencies 0.5, 1.0, and . Averages were calculated for normal-hearing listeners (NHR), two groups of hearing-impaired (HI-S and HI-F), and two groups of listeners with simulated hearing loss (SIM-S and SIM-F). The average result on SRBT for normal-hearing listeners was taken from Noordhoek (1999).

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Product-moment correlations between and , , , , age, and pure-tone average (PTA), in both normal and adapted spectral mode, calculated for all participants (left, ) and for the hearing-impaired listeners only (right, ). Since no normal-hearing SRBT data are available, the correlations displayed in italics are calculated including only SIM and HI data . Correlations indicated with an asterisk are significant. .

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

Product-moment cross-correlations between , , , , age, and pure-tone average (PTA). Bold values on the diagonal are autocorrelations between test and retest values. Only HI data were included in the calculations . Correlations indicated with an asterisk are significant. .

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Product-moment correlations between and , , , , age, and PTA, in both normal and adapted spectral mode, calculated for all participants (left, ) and for hearing-impaired listeners only (right, ). Since no normal-hearing SRBT data are available, the correlations displayed in italics are calculated including only SIM and HI data . Correlations indicated with an asterisk are significant. .

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/4/10.1121/1.2266530
2006-10-01
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Factors affecting masking release for speech in modulated noise for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/120/4/10.1121/1.2266530
10.1121/1.2266530
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