Volume 120, Issue 4, October 2006
Index of content:
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2338286View Description Hide Description
A time reversal mirror exploits spatial diversity to achieve spatial and temporal focusing, a useful property for communications in an environment with significant multipath. Taking advantage of spatial diversity involves using a number of receivers distributed in space. This paper presents the impact of spatial diversity in passive time reversal communications between a probe source (PS) and a vertical receive array using at-sea experimental data, while the PS is either fixed or moving at about . The performance of two different approaches is compared in terms of output signal-to-noise ratio versus the number of receiver elements: (1) time reversal alone and (2) time reversal combined with adaptive channel equalization. The time-varying channel response due to source motion requires an adaptive channel equalizer such that approach (2) outperforms approach (1) by up to as compared to for a fixed source case. Experimental results around with a bandwidth illustrate that as few as two or three receivers (i.e., 2 or array aperture) can provide reasonable performance at ranges of 4.2 and in deep water.
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2336751View Description Hide Description
Data recorded during a temporary deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) are used in this study to monitor the presence of fin whales around the array. In the summer of 2003, ten OBSs were placed from the NW coast of Iberia in the Galicia Margin, NE Atlantic Ocean for a period of one month. The recorded data set provided a large variety of signals, including fin whale vocalizations identified by their specific acoustic signature. The use of a dense array of seafloor receivers allowed investigation into the locations and tracks of the signal-generating whales using a seismological hypocentral location code. Individual pulses of different sequences have been chosen to study such tracks. Problems related to the correct identification of pulses, discrimination between direct and multiple arrivals, and the presence of more than one individual have been considered prior to location. Fin calls were concentrated in the last two weeks of the deployment and the locations were spread around the area covered by the array. These results illustrate that, besides its classical seismological aim, deployment of semipermanent seafloor seismic arrays can also provide valuable data for marine mammal behavior studies.
120(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2336752View Description Hide Description
Emerging methods of hyperthermia cancer treatment require noninvasive temperature monitoring, and ultrasonic techniques show promise in this regard. Various tomographic algorithms are available that reconstruct sound speed or contrast profiles, which can be related to temperature distribution. The requirement of a high enough frequency for adequate spatial resolution and a low enough frequency for adequate tissue penetration is a difficult compromise. In this study, the feasibility of using low frequency ultrasound for imaging and temperature monitoring was investigated. The transient probing wave field had a bandwidth spanning the frequency range . The results from a forward model which computed the propagation and scattering of low-frequency acoustic pressure and velocity wave fields were used to compare three imaging methods formulated within the Born approximation, representing two main types of reconstruction. The first uses Fourier techniques to reconstruct sound-speed profiles from projection or Radon data based on optical ray theory, seen as an asymptotical limit for comparison. The second uses backpropagation and conjugate gradient inversion methods based on acoustical wave theory. The results show that the accuracy in localization was or better when using low frequencies and the conjugate gradient inversion scheme, which could be used for temperature monitoring.