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1.A. Lehr, “Designing chimes and carillons in history,” Acust. Acta Acust. 83, 320336 (1997).
2.A. Lehr, “Chinese lithophone,” Berichten uit het National Beiaardmuseum 6, 36 (1993).
3.J. Yoo, “Acoustics of Korean percussion instruments: Pyeongyeong and pyeonjong,” (Ph.D. dissertation, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, 2005).
4.J. Yoo and T. D. Rossing, “Vibrational modes of pyeon-gyoung, Korean chime stone,” in Proceedings of ISMA 2004: International symposium on musical acoustics, edited by S. Adachi Nara, Japan (2004).
5.F. A. Kuttner, The Archaeology of Music in Ancient China: 2,000 Years of Acoustical Experimentation 1400 BC-AD 750 (Paragon House, New York, 1990).
6.The Museum of Hubei Province, The Tomb of Marquis Yi of State of Zeng (Cultural Relics Publishing House, Beijing, 1989), in Chinese.

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The vibrational mode frequencies and mode shapes of ancient stone chimes are analyzed and their dependence on stone shapes are discussed. Mode shapes and frequencies of several chime models are determined by using finite element methods, and these show good agreement with mode shapes and frequencies observed in Korean chime stones using holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. The dependence of mode shapes and frequencies on vertex angle and base curvature suggests that the geometries used in late Chinese and Korean may have been selected to give the best sound.


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