Index of content:
Volume 121, Issue 1, January 2007
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2387121View Description Hide Description
MPEG-1, layer 3 handsets equipped with dual loudspeakers and three-dimensional audio modules have received much attention in the market of consumer electronics. To create spatial impression during audio reproduction, the head-related transfer function (HRTF) and the crosstalk cancellation system(CCS) are key elements in many audio spatializers. However, there are many factors that one should take into account during the design and implementation stages of an audio spatializer in the handset application. In the paper, a comprehensive study was undertaken to compare various audio spatializers for use with dual-loudspeaker handsets, in the context of inverse filtering strategies. Two deconvolution approaches, the frequency-domain method and the time-domain method, are employed to design the required inverse filters. Different approaches to design audio spatializers with the HRTF, CCS, and their combination are compared. In particular, two modified CCS approaches are suggested. Issues in the implementation phase such as regularization, complex smoothing, and structures of inverse filters are also addressed in the paper. Comprehensive objective and subjective tests were conducted to investigate the aforementioned aspects of audio spatializers. The data obtained from the subjective tests are processed by using the multianalysis of variance to justify statistical significance of the results.