Comparison of results obtained by Scharf (1969) (circles) with prediction of the modified loudness model (solid lines). The ordinate shows the level difference required for equal loudness of a tone presented monaurally, and of that same tone when presented simultaneously with a tone of different frequency in the opposite ear. The abscissa shows the frequency difference between the two tones, which were symmetrically placed around 500, 1000, or (left to right columns) on a bark scale ( Zwicker, 1961 ). Results and predictions are presented for three loudness levels of the component tones, 20, 50, and 80 phon, shown by the three rows.
The level difference required for equal loudness of a diotic and monaural 1-kHz tone, , for a tone presented in free field with frontal incidence. The value of is plotted as a function of the level of the diotic tone, which is equal to its loudness level in phons. For comparison, the dashed line shows the experimental results of Whilby et al. (2006) .
Comparison of the predicted loudness of stimuli used by Zwicker and Zwicker (1991) with the median obtained loudness judgments, using a monaural sound as anchor (which was assigned 100 units of loudness). The sound had the same spectral shape in each ear. The sound at one ear was fixed in level, while the sound in the other ear had a relative level of 0, , , , and dB. The obtained loudness judgments are the median across all stimulus types. Predictions were generated for a 1/3-octave-wide noise centered at with a fixed level in one ear of SPL.
Predicted loudness of stimuli used by Zwicker and Zwicker (1991) , in which 1-critical-band-wide bands of noise (band number from 1 to 24) were presented in various patterns across the two ears (see text for details). Predicted loudness is given both in sones, and relative to the loudness of a diotic reference or monaural reference; in each case the reference was assigned 100 units of loudness. The median loudness judgments obtained by Zwicker and Zwicker (1991) are also shown.
Loudness matches obtained by Sivonen and Ellermeier (2006) for noise bands centered at , and predicted loudness matches. The first column shows the azimuth of the sound source. The next two columns show the predicted and obtained “directional loudness sensitivity” (DLS) values; see text for details.
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