The stratified model represents a composite medium as a one-dimensional structure of alternating layers of two media with density and Lamé constants and .
Measurements of frequency-dependent phase velocity on polycarbonate plate obtained using (1) the GE Achilles Insight, and (2) Panametrics transducers in a water tank.
Time domain vs frequency domain measurements of group velocity in 73 women.
Phase velocity vs group velocity in 73 women.
Average frequency-dependent phase velocity in 73 women. Error bars denote standard errors.
Stratified model predictions for phase velocity assuming four different sets of material parameters for bone trabeculae.
Stratified-model predictions for phase velocity in cancellous bone based on two options for the fluid filler: water (in vitro experiments) and marrow (in vivo experiments).
Stratified-model predictions for phase velocity in cancellous bone as a function of ratio of bone volume to total volume (BV/TV). The values for BV/TV shown correspond to the mean one standard deviation for BV/TV reported in human calcaneus (Ulrich et al., 1999).
Demographic information for clinical study.
Estimates of dispersion rate in human calcaneus from Wear (2000), Nicholson et al. (1996, Table 1), Strelitzki and Evans (1996, Table 2), Droin et al. (1998, Table 1), and the present paper.
Material and structural properties used as inputs for the stratified model. Material parameters for bone were taken from Cowin (1989). Structural parameters for bone were taken from Ulrich et al. (1999). Material parameters for water and marrow (i.e., fat) were taken from the material properties library WAVE 2000 PRO software (Cyberlogic, New York) and Kaye and Laby, 1973.
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