Volume 121, Issue 4, April 2007
Index of content:
- BIOACOUSTICS 
Optical and acoustic monitoring of bubble cloud dynamics at a tissue-fluid interface in ultrasound tissue erosion121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2710079View Description Hide Description
Short, high-intensity ultrasound pulses have the ability to achieve localized, clearly demarcated erosion in soft tissue at a tissue-fluid interface. The primary mechanism for ultrasound tissue erosion is believed to be acoustic cavitation. To monitor the cavitating bubble cloud generated at a tissue-fluid interface, an optical attenuation method was used to record the intensity loss of transmitted light through bubbles. Optical attenuation was only detected when a bubble cloud was seen using high speed imaging. The light attenuation signals correlated well with a temporally changing acoustic backscatter which is an excellent indicator for tissue erosion. This correlation provides additional evidence that the cavitating bubble cloud is essential for ultrasound tissue erosion. The bubble cloud collapse cycle and bubble dissolution time were studied using the optical attenuation signals. The collapse cycle of the bubble cloud generated by a high intensity ultrasound pulse of was depending on the acoustic parameters. The dissolution time of the residual bubbles was tens of ms long. This study of bubble dynamics may provide further insight into previous ultrasound tissue erosion results.
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2697436View Description Hide Description
Commercial bone sonometers measure broadband ultrasonic attenuation and/or speed of sound(SOS) in order to assess bone status. Phase velocity, which is usually measured in frequency domain, is a fundamental material property of bone that is related to SOS, which is usually measured in time domain. Four previous in vitro studies indicate that phase velocity in human cancellous bone decreases with frequency (i.e., negative dispersion). In order to investigate frequency-dependent phase velocityin vivo, through-transmission measurements were performed in 73 women using a GE Lunar Achilles commercial bone sonometer. Average phase velocity at was (mean standard deviation). Average dispersion rate was . Group velocity was usually lower than phase velocity, as is expected for negatively dispersive media. Using a stratified model to represent cancellous bone, the reductions in phase velocity and dispersion rate in vivo as opposed to in vitro can be explained by (1) the presence of marrow instead of water as a fluid filler, and (2) the decreased porosity of bones of living (compared with deceased) subjects.
Shear wave speed recovery using moving interference patterns obtained in sonoelastography experiments121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2534717View Description Hide Description
Two new experiments were created to characterize the elasticity of soft tissue using sonoelastography. In both experiments the spectral variance image displayed on a GE LOGIC 700 ultrasound machine shows a moving interference pattern that travels at a very small fraction of the shear wave speed. The goal of this paper is to devise and test algorithms to calculate the speed of the moving interference pattern using the arrival times of these same patterns. A geometric optics expansion is used to obtain Eikonal equations relating the moving interference pattern arrival times to the moving interference pattern speed and then to the shear wave speed. A cross-correlation procedure is employed to find the arrival times; and an inverse Eikonal solver called the level curve method computes the speed of the interference pattern. The algorithm is tested on data from a phantom experiment performed at the University of Rochester Center for Biomedical Ultrasound.