Index of content:
Volume 121, Issue 4, April 2007
- ULTRASONICS, QUANTUM ACOUSTICS, AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF SOUND 
Finite-bandwidth Kramers-Kronig relations for acoustic group velocity and attenuation derivative applied to encapsulated microbubble suspensions121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2535616View Description Hide Description
Kramers-Kronig (KK) analyses of experimental data are complicated by the conflict between the inherently bandlimited data and the requirement of KK integrals for a complete infinite spectrum of input information. For data exhibiting localized extrema, KK relations can provide accurate transforms over finite bandwidths due to the local-weighting properties of the KK kernel. Recently, acoustic KK relations have been derived for the determination of the group velocity and the derivative of the attenuation coefficient (components of the derivative of the acoustic complex wave number). These relations are applicable to bandlimited data exhibiting resonant features without extrapolation or unmeasured parameters. In contrast to twice-subtracted finite-bandwidth KK predictions for phase velocity and attenuation coefficient (components of the undifferentiated wave number), these more recently derived relations for and provide stricter tests of causal consistency because the resulting shapes are invariant with respect to subtraction constants. The integrals in these relations can be formulated so that they only require the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient data without differentiation. Using experimental data from suspensions of encapsulated microbubbles, the finite-bandwidth KK predictions for and are found to provide an accurate mapping of the primary wave number quantities onto their derivatives.
Ultrasonic transient bounded-beam propagation in a solid cylinder waveguide embedded in a solid medium121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2536759View Description Hide Description
A semianalytical solution alternative and complementary to modal technique is presented to predict and interpret the ultrasonic pulsed-bounded-beam propagation in a solid cylinder embedded in a solid matrix. The spectral response to an inside axisymmetric velocity source of longitudinal and transversal cylindrical waves is derived from Debye series expansion of the embedded cylinder generalized cylindrical reflection/transmission coefficients. So, the transient guided wave response, synthesized by inverse double Fourier-Bessel transform, is expressed as a combination of the infinite medium contribution, longitudinal, transversal, and coupled longitudinal and transversal waveguide sidewall interactions. Simulated diagrams show the influence of the number of waveguide sidewall interactions to progressively recover dispersion curves. Besides, they show the embedding material filters specific signal portions by concentrating the propagating signal in regions where phase velocity is closer to phase velocity in steel. Then, simulated time waveforms using broadband high-frequency excitation show that signal leading portions exhibit a similar periodical pattern, for both free and embedded waveguides. Debye series-based interpretation shows that double longitudinal/transversal and transversal/longitudinal conversions govern the time waveform leading portion as well as the radiation attenuation in the surrounding cement grout. Finally, a methodology is deduced to minimize the radiation attenuation for the long-range inspection of embedded cylinders.
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2534256View Description Hide Description
The dispersion curves for guided waves have been of constant interest in the last decades, because they constitute the starting point for NDE ultrasonic applications. This paper presents an evolution of the semianalytical finite element method, and gives examples that illustrate new improvements and their importance for studying the propagation of waves along periodic structures of infinite width. Periodic boundary conditions are in fact used to model the infinite periodicity of the geometry in the direction normal to the direction of propagation. This method allows a complete investigation of the dispersion curves and of displacement ∕ stress fields for guided modes in anisotropic and absorbing periodic structures. Among other examples, that of a grooved aluminum plate is theoretically and experimentally investigated, indicating the presence of specific and original guided modes.
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2711145View Description Hide Description
Guided wavephased array focusing has shown many advantages in long-range pipeline inspection, such as, longer inspection distance, greater wave penetration power and higher detection resolution. Viscoelastic coatings applied to a large percentage of pipes for protection purposes created some challenges in terms of focusing feasibility and inspection ability. Previous studies were all based on bare pipe models. In this work, guided wavephased array focusing in viscoelastic coated pipes is studied for the first time. Work was carried out with both numerical and experimental methods. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed for quantitatively and systematically modeling guided waves in pipes with different viscoelastic materials. A method of transforming measured coating properties to finite element method inputs was created in order to create a physically based model of guided waves in coated pipes. Guided wave focusing possibilities in viscoelastic coated pipes and the effects from coatings were comprehensively studied afterwards. A comparison of focusing and nonfocusing inspections was also studied quantitatively in coated pipe showing that focusing increased the wave energy and consequently the inspection ability tremendously. This study provides an important base line and guidance for guided wave propagation and focusing in a real field pipeline under various coating and environmental conditions.
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2535534View Description Hide Description
This paper reports on an experimental technique to determine a response function of a thermocouple using a short acoustic pulse wave. A pulse of is generated in a tube filled with helium gas. The temperature is measured using the thermocouple. The reference temperature is deduced from the measuredpressure on the basis of a laminar oscillating flow theory. The response function of the thermocouple is obtained as a function of frequency below through a comparison between the measured and reference temperatures.