Index of content:
Volume 121, Issue 6, June 2007
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2734482View Description Hide Description
This paper proposes an alternative displacement formulation of Biot’s linear model for poroelastic materials. Its advantage is a simplification of the formalism without making any additional assumptions. The main difference between the method proposed in this paper and the original one is the choice of the generalized coordinates. In the present approach, the generalized coordinates are chosen in order to simplify the expression of the strain energy, which is expressed as the sum of two decoupled terms. Hence, new equations of motion are obtained whose elastic forces are decoupled. The simplification of the formalism is extended to Biot and Willis thought experiments, and simpler expressions of the parameters of the three Biot waves are also provided. A rigorous derivation of equivalent and limp models is then proposed. It is finally shown that, for the particular case of sound-absorbing materials, additional simplifications of the formalism can be obtained.
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2730623View Description Hide Description
Reinforcing speech levels and controlling noise and reverberation are the ultimate acoustical goals of lecture-room design to achieve high speech intelligibility. The effects of sound absorption on these factors have opposite consequences for speech intelligibility. Here, novel ceiling baffles and reflectors were evaluated as a sound-control measure, using computer and 1/8-scale models of a lecture room with hard surfaces and excessive reverberation. Parallel ceiling baffles running front to back were investigated. They were expected to absorb reverberation incident on the ceiling from many angles, while leaving speech signals, reflecting from the ceiling to the back of the room, unaffected. Various baffle spacings and absorptions, central and side speaker positions, and receiver positions throughout the room, were considered. Reflective baffles controlled reverberation, with a minimum decrease of sound levels. Absorptive baffles reduced reverberation, but reduced speech levels significantly. Ceiling reflectors, in the form of obstacles of semicircular cross section, suspended below the ceiling, were also tested. These were either long and in parallel, front-to-back lines, or long and randomly distributed, with flat side up or down, and reflective or absorptive top surfaces. The long reflectors with flat side down and no absorption were somewhat effective; the other configurations were not.