Volume 121, Issue 6, June 2007
Index of content:
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
Liquid jet response to internal modulated ultrasonic radiation pressure and stimulated drop production121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2734493View Description Hide Description
Experimental evidence shows that a liquid jet in air is an acoustic waveguide having a cutoff frequency inversely proportional to the jet diameter. Ultrasound applied to the jet supply liquid can propagate within the jet when the acoustic frequency is near to or above the cutoff frequency. Modulated radiation pressure is used to stimulate large amplitude deformations and the breakup of the jet into drops. The jet response to the modulated internal ultrasonic radiation pressure was monitored along the jet using (a) an optical extinction method and (b) images captured by a video camera. The jet profile oscillates at the frequency of the radiation pressure modulation and where the response is small, the amplitude was found to increase in proportion to the square of the acoustic pressure amplitude as previously demonstrated for oscillating drops [P.L. Marston and R.E. Apfel, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.67, 27–37 (Year: 1980)]. Small amplitude deformations initially grow approximately exponentially with axial distance along the jet. Though aspects of the perturbation growth can be approximated from Rayleigh’s analysis of the capillary instability, some detailed features of the observed jet response to modulated ultrasound are unexplained neglecting the effects of gravity.
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2722233View Description Hide Description
The present paper proposes a model that describes the encapsulation of microbubble contrast agents by the linear Maxwellconstitutive equation. The model also incorporates the translational motion of contrast agent microbubbles and takes into account radiation losses due to the compressibility of the surrounding liquid. To establish physical features of the proposed model, comparative analysis is performed between this model and two existing models, one of which treats the encapsulation as a viscoelastic solid following the Kelvin-Voigt constitutive equation and the other assumes that the encapsulating layer behaves as a viscous Newtonian fluid. Resonance frequencies, damping coefficients, and scattering cross sections for the three shell models are compared in the regime of linear oscillation. Translational displacements predicted by the three shell models are examined by numerically calculating the genera1, nonlinearized equations of motion for weakly nonlinear excitation. Analogous results for free bubbles are also presented as a basis to which calculations made for encapsulated bubbles can be related. It is shown that the Maxwellshell model possesses specific physical features that are unavailable in the two other models.
Optical measurements of the self-demodulated displacement and its interpretation in terms of radiation pressure121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2730624View Description Hide Description
Using a sensitive optical interferometer, the low frequency displacement nonlinearly generated by an ultrasonic tone burst propagating in a liquid is studied. Close to the source, the low frequency displacement contains a quasi-static component, which is affected by diffractioneffects farther from the transducer. The experimental setup provides quantitative results, which allow the determination of the nonlinearity parameter of the liquid with a good accuracy. Such measurements are carried out in water and ethanol. Finally, the pressure associated with the low frequency displacement is discussed. Introducing the temporal mean value of the displacement, as already done in lossless solids, the noncumulative part of this second order pressure is associated with the static part of the low frequency displacement. This interpretation leads to extend the definition of the Rayleigh radiation pressure usually introduced for a continuous plane wave radiated in a confined fluid.