Volume 121, Issue 6, June 2007
Index of content:
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2724242View Description Hide Description
Several versions of the dispersion formula governing the acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are shown to exhibit acausal behavior. The cause of this behavior is due to the inappropriate application of a low frequency approximation in the determination of the extinction of the signal from radiative scattering. Using a corrected causal formula, several principles of wave propagation in bubbly media consistent with the general theory of wave propagation in dispersive media are demonstrated: There exist two precursors to any finite signal. Both propagate without regard to the source characteristics at velocities, frequencies, and amplitudes dependent wholly upon the characteristics of the medium supporting the wave motion. The first travels at the infinite frequency phase velocity that is coincident with the infinite frequency limit of the group velocity. That part of a propagating wave oscillating at the source frequency arrives at a time determined by the signal velocity. Analogous to the well known signal velocity of electromagnetic wave propagation in conducting media, the value of the signal velocity depends on the detailed structure of the dispersion formula in the complex frequency plane.
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2722044View Description Hide Description
Multipath ocean reverberation originating from the seabed in shallow isovelocity water, with particular attention to its information content in the cylindrical spreading and mode stripping regions, is considered. The reverberation is evaluated using Weston’s flux integral method, both analytically with various simplifying approximations and numerically with all but one of these approximations rescinded. The functional form of the analytical solution is used to infer which physical seabed parameters can be extracted from measurements of reverberation. Coarse- and fine-grained sediments (sand and clay) are both considered. The main purpose of the numerical solutions is to check the accuracy of the analytical approximations; they also serve as a convenient surrogate for measured reverberation.
121(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2723650View Description Hide Description
Ocean acoustic interferometry refers to an approach whereby signals recorded from a line of sources are used to infer the Green’s function between two receivers. An approximation of the time domain Green’s function is obtained by summing, over all source positions (stacking), the cross-correlations between the receivers. Within this paper a stationary phase argument is used to describe the relationship between the stacked cross-correlations from a line of vertical sources, located in the same vertical plane as two receivers, and the Green’s function between the receivers. Theory and simulations demonstrate the approach and are in agreement with those of a modal based approach presented by others. Results indicate that the stacked cross-correlations can be directly related to the shaded Green’s function, so long as the modal continuum of any sediment layers is negligible.