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Boundary element model for simulating sound propagation and source localization within the lungs
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10.1121/1.2715453
/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/1/10.1121/1.2715453
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/1/10.1121/1.2715453

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of complex wave number for: lung parenchyma (Ref. 16) (●); soft tissue (Ref. 15) (엯); and air (×).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Comparison of FE and BE results for cylindrical volume with a finite monopole located along the central axis at of the height of the cylinder. Vertical velocity (m/s) on surface at bottom center of cylinder is shown for different uniform boundary conditions. Key: BE (– – –) and FE (엯) results for free boundary; BE (---) and FE (×) results for “soft” tissue layer covering the entire parenchyma surface with and Young’s modulus ; BE (– - –) and FE results for “hard” tissue layer covering the entire parenchyma surface with and Young’s modulus .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Comparison of (a) FE and (b) BE results for cylindrical volume with a finite monopole located along the central axis at of the height of the cylinder and with a composite soft and hard tissue layer. Axisymmetric radial velocity (m/s) on the side of the cylinder as a function of excitation frequency is shown. In both plots the color bar unit is decibels reference .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Top and side view diagrams showing the locations of the piezoelectric disk transducers in the lung phantom.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Lung phantom. (Left) Photograph showing LDV measurement points and (right) close-up of a piezoelectric disk transducer.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Velocity field amplitude on lateral (curved) surface of lung phantom at . (a) Experiment, (b) simulated using BE model, and (c) simulated using free field assumption. In all plots color bar unit is millimeter per second.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Velocity field amplitude on lateral (curved) surface of lung phantom at . (a) Experiment, (b) simulated using BE model, and (c) simulated using free field assumption. In all plots color bar unit is millimeter per second.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Velocity field amplitude on lateral (curved) surface of lung phantom at . (a) Experiment, (b) simulated using BE model, and (c) simulated using free field assumption. In all plots color bar unit is mm/s.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Velocity field amplitude on lateral (curved) surface of lung phantom at with silicone coating. (a) Experiment and (b) simulated using BE model. In all plots color bar unit is millimeter per second.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Hypothetical point source locations using source localization algorithm. (a) Top view and (b) three-dimensional view.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) BE surface mesh is shown; actual source location is at the intersection of the three thick (black) lines; iso-surfaces are shown (in red and green) for calculated using the BE model and free field assumption (respectively). The calculation using the BE model results in the smaller (and darker in grayscale) single iso-surface closer to the source in both cases. Each iso-surface encompasses the interpolated 3-dimensional region of theta within which exceeds 90% of its maximum value.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Visible human male. (a) Both lungs meshed with high resolution. Each lung is composed of triangular elements. (b) Left lung meshed with 4052 elements. The location of the 247 sensing locations on the lung parenchyma used in the source localization study are indicated by the darker grayscale marks. Positive denotes anterior direction.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Velocity field due to point acoustic source at calculated using (a) BE model (two different views) and (b) free field model (two different views). Positive denotes anterior direction.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

3436 hypothetical point source locations using source localization algorithm. (a) 3D view and (b) side view. Positive denotes anterior direction.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) Source localization results at using Bartlett beamformer coupled with (a) BE model and (b) free-field propagation assumption. Positive denotes anterior direction. Each isosurface encompasses the interpolated three-dimensional region of within which exceeds 87% of its maximum value.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Acoustic properties of foam phantom and human lung tissue.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Distance between the actual source location and estimated source locations at .

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/1/10.1121/1.2715453
2007-07-01
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Boundary element model for simulating sound propagation and source localization within the lungs
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/1/10.1121/1.2715453
10.1121/1.2715453
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