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Finite-element analysis of middle-ear pressure effects on static and dynamic behavior of human ear
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10.1121/1.2749417
/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/2/10.1121/1.2749417
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/2/10.1121/1.2749417

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Stress-stretch curves of tympanic membrane (TM), stapedial tendon (C5), tensor tympani tendon (C7), and anterior malleal ligament (C4) measured from the uniaxial tensile tests in our laboratory.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Distribution of von Mises stress of the TM in the ear canal side. (a) The TM stress distribution for middle-ear pressure of ; (b) the TM stress distribution for middle-ear pressure of .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Variation of elastic modulus with middle-ear pressure for dynamic analysis. Elastic moduli were calculated from Eq. (5). The lines represent tympanic membrane (TM), superior malleal ligament (C1), lateral mallear ligament (C2), posterior incudal ligament (C3), anterior malleal ligament (C4), stapedial tendon (C5), tensor tympani tendon (C7), stapedial annular ligament (SAL), and incudostapedial joint (IS-J).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of FE model-predicted static displacement (magnitude in unit ) at the umbo and stapes footplate in response to variation of middle-ear pressure from to with the measurements reported by Hüttenbrink (1988) and Murakami et al. (1997) in human temporal bones.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

FE model-predicted displacement contours of the TM (magnitude in unit ) in medial view. (a) The outward displacement contours of the TM at middle-ear pressure of ; (b) the inward displacement contours of the TM at middle-ear pressure of .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

FE model-derived peak-to-peak displacements of the TM at the umbo across the frequency range of , when middle-ear pressure was varied from 0 to . (a) Magnitude; (b) phase angle.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

FE model-derived peak-to-peak displacements of the stapes footplate (FP) across the frequency range of , when middle-ear pressure was varied from 0 to . (a) Magnitude; (b) phase angle.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

FE model-derived peak-to-peak displacements of the TM at the umbo across the frequency range of , when middle-ear pressure was varied from 0 to . (a) Magnitude; (b) phase angle.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

FE model-derived peak-to-peak displacements of the stapes footplate (FP) across the frequency range of , when middle-ear pressure was varied from 0 to . (a) Magnitude; (b) phase angle.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Comparison of FE model-derived changes in displacement magnitude at positive middle-ear pressure (relative to zero pressure) with the measurements reported by Murakami et al. (1997) and Gan et al. (2006a) in human temporal bones. (a) Umbo; (b) stapes footplate.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Comparison of FE model-derived changes in displacement magnitude at negative middle-ear pressure (relative to zero pressure) with the measurements reported by Murakami et al. (1997) and Gan et al. (2006a) in human temporal bones. (a) Umbo; (b) stapes footplate.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

FE model-derived peak-to-peak displacements of the TM at the umbo in response to middle-ear pressure of and . The calculation was under the assumption that geometry of the TM and middle-ear ligaments was changed with the middle-ear pressure variation, but the mechanical properties of those tissues were maintained as the values at zero middle-ear pressure.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Hyperelastic material constants of the TM and ligaments.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/2/10.1121/1.2749417
2007-08-01
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Finite-element analysis of middle-ear pressure effects on static and dynamic behavior of human ear
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/2/10.1121/1.2749417
10.1121/1.2749417
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