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A study of regressive place assimilation in spontaneous speech and its implications for spoken word recognition
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10.1121/1.2772226
/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/4/10.1121/1.2772226
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/4/10.1121/1.2772226

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Percentage of tokens labeled as each of the four variants for the three word-final alveolars in an assimilable context. The number of tokens of each alveolar is listed in parentheses.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Variant rates for the 21 most frequent words in the phonetic labeling analysis.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Box plots of the F2 difference in an vowel show nine labeling conditions in which segments were followed by labial (bars 1–4), alveolar (bar 5), and velar (bars 6–9) contexts. Labels on the axis describe the conditions, as well as how the word final tokens in those conditions were labeled. The underlying segment is listed first, followed after the arrow by its surface (i.e., labeled) realization. The following context is listed after the word boundary symbol (#). lab, alv, and vel refer to labial, alveolar, and velar places of articulation, respectively. 0 denotes the segment was deleted. Conditions with the white bars contain data from control contexts in which the place of articulation across the word boundary is the same. In bars 2–4 and 6–8, an underlying alveolar segment is in the context of a following labial or velar segment, respectively. In these conditions, the light-grey bars represent data from tokens labeled as canonical or assimilated, and the dark grey bars, deletions. The solid line in the middle box is the median of the distribution. The dashed line is the mean, with its value listed. Symbols at the bottom of the graph denote which conditions are statistically indistinguishable from each other.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Box plots of the F2 difference in [æ] and vowels show nine labeling conditions in which segments were followed by labial (bars 1–4) alveolar (bar 5), and velar (bars 6–9) contexts. Labels on the axis describe the conditions, as well as how the word final tokens in those conditions were labeled. The underlying segment is listed first, followed after the arrow by its surface (i.e., labeled) realization. The following context is listed after the word boundary symbol (#). lab, alv, and vel refer to labial, alveolar, and velar places of articulation, respectively. 0 denotes the segment was deleted. Conditions with the white bars contain data from control contexts in which the place of articulation across the word boundary is the same. In bars 2–4 and 6–8, an underlying alveolar segment is in the context of a following labial or velar segment, respectively. In these conditions, the light-grey bars represent data from tokens labeled as canonical or assimilated, and the dark grey bars, deletions.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Box plots of the drop in formant amplitude in tokens labeled as deleted, assimilated, and canonical. The top and bottom graphs differ with respect to the identity of the preceding vowel ( or ). Data in the left graph are for the first formant, those in the right for the second. The solid line in the middle box is the median of the distribution, and the dashed line is the mean, with its value listed.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Box plots of the closure duration in tokens labeled as deleted, assimilated, and canonical (alveolar). The top and bottom graphs differ with respect to the identity of the preceding vowel ( or ).

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Percentage of tokens in assimilable environments as a function of form class, number of syllables, and assigned label. All percentages have been rounded.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Percentage of word types (upper half) and word tokens (lower half) labeled as having been realized as each of four variant categories (D=deletion, A=assimilation, C=canonical, G=glottal), broken down by final segment (/t/, /d/, or /n/). Categories with two or more labels (e.g., DA) indicate the word-final segment was indicated as having been realized as more than one variant type. Note that possible categories for /t/ are listed separately because glottals rarely occurred for /d/ or /n/. See the text for further details.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/4/10.1121/1.2772226
2007-10-01
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A study of regressive place assimilation in spontaneous speech and its implications for spoken word recognition
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/4/10.1121/1.2772226
10.1121/1.2772226
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