Index of content:
Volume 122, Issue 4, October 2007
- ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION 
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2773946View Description Hide Description
Previous analytical and empirical studies of the human auditory system have shown that the cues used for localization are modified by the inclusion of nonrigid scattering surfaces (clothing, hair etc). This paper presents an investigation into the acoustic impedanceproperties of human hair. The legitimacy of a locally reactive surface assumption is investigated, and an appropriate boundary condition is formulated to account for the physiological composition of a human head with hair. This utilizes an equivalent impedance parameter to allow the scattering boundary to be defined at a reference plane coincident with the inner rigid surface of the head. Experimental examination of a representative synthetic hair material at oblique incidence is used to show that a locally reactive surface assumption is legitimate. Additional experimental analysis of a simple scattering problem illustrates that the equivalent impedance must be used in favor of the traditional surface impedance to yield physically correct pressure magnitudes. The equivalent acoustic impedanceproperties of a representative range of human hair samples are discussed, including trends with sample thickness, fiber diameter, bulk density, and mass.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2773929View Description Hide Description
Modeling of small Helmholtz resonators based on electroacoustical analogies often results in significant disagreement with measurements, as existing models do not take into account some losses that are observed in practical implementations of such acoustical circuits, e.g., in photoacoustic Helmholtz cells. The paper presents a method which introduces loss corrections to the transmission line model, resulting in substantial improvement of simulations. Values of the loss corrections obtained from comparison of frequency responses of practically implemented resonators with computer simulations are presented in tabular and graphical form. A simple analytical function that can be used for interpolation or extrapolation of the loss corrections for other dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators is also given. Verification of such a modeling method against an open two-cavity Helmholtz structure shows very good agreement between measurements and simulations.