Volume 122, Issue 4, October 2007
Index of content:
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2773995View Description Hide Description
Analysis of reverberation measurements in the Straits of Sicily shows high intensity, discrete, scattered returns above background reverberation. These returns are due to scattering from mud volcanoes. The reverberation from the mud volcanoes at ranges of is reasonably consistent over these spatial scales (i.e., kilometers) and temporal scales of several hours; measurements separated by are also similar. Statistical characterization indicates that the reverberation associated with a mud-volcano cluster is strongly non-Rayleigh and that the reverberation can be characterized by a single (shape) parameter, roughly independent of frequency. The non-Rayleigh statistics, with a concomitant increase in the probability of false alarm, indicate that mud volcanoes are a likely source of clutter. Mean target strengths were estimated at over and are consistent with target strengths measured during a different year at short (direct-path) ranges. Accumulated evidence points to small (order diameter and several meters high) carbonate chimneys on the mud-volcano edifice as the scattering mechanism as opposed to the edifice itself or scattering from gas bubbles in the water column. Thus, the results represent acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes in a quiescent state.
A statistical geoacoustic inversion scheme based on a modified radial basis functions neural network122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2772232View Description Hide Description
This paper addresses the task of recovering the geoacoustic parameters of a shallow-water environment using measurements of the acoustic field due to a known source and a neural network based inversion process. First, a novel efficient “observable” of the acoustic signal is proposed, which represents the signal in accordance with the recoverable parameters. Motivated by recent studies in non-Gaussian statistical theory, the observable is defined as a set of estimated model parameters of the alpha-stable distributions, which fit the marginal statistics of the wavelet subband coefficients, obtained after the transformation of the original signal via a one-dimensional wavelet decomposition. Following the modeling process to extract the observables as features, a radial basis functions neural network is employed to approximate the vector function that takes as input the observables and gives as output the corresponding set of environmental parameters. The performance of the proposed approach in recovering the sound speed and density in the substrate of a typical shallow-water environment is evaluated using a database of synthetic acoustic signals, generated by means of a normal-mode acoustic propagation algorithm.
Sperm whale three-dimensional track, swim orientation, beam pattern, and click levels observed on bottom-mounted hydrophonesa)122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2775423View Description Hide Description
In an earlier paper [Nosal and Frazer Appl. Acoust.61, 1187–1201 (2006)], a sperm whale was tracked in three-dimensions using direct and surface-reflected time differences (DRTD) of clicks recorded on five bottom-mounted hydrophones, a passive method that is robust to timing errors between hydrophones. This paper refines the DRTD method and combines it with a time of (direct) arrival method to improve the accuracy of the track. The position and origin time of each click having been estimated, pitch and yaw are then obtained by assuming the main axis of the whale is tangent to the track. Roll is then found by applying the bent horn model of sperm whale phonation, in which each click is composed of two pulses, p0 and p1, that exit the whale at different points. With instantaneous pitch, roll, and yaw estimated from time differences, amplitudes are then used to estimate the beam patterns of the p0 and p1 pulses. The resulting beam patterns independently confirm those obtained by Zimmer et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am.117, 1473–1485 (2005); 118, 3337–3345 (2005)] with a very different experimental setup. A method for estimating relative click levels is presented and used to find that click levels decrease toward the end of a click series, prior to the “creak” associated with prey capture.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2769830View Description Hide Description
Adaptive matched-field processing (MFP) is not only very sensitive to mismatch, but also requires the received sound levels to exceed a threshold signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, acoustic sources and interferers have to move slowly enough across resolution cells so that a full rank cross-spectral density matrix can be constructed. Coherent-broadband MFP takes advantage of the temporal complexity of the signal, and therefore offers an additional gain over narrow-band processing by augmenting the dimension of the data space. However, the sensitivity to mismatch is also increased in the process, since a single constraint is usually not enough to achieve robustness and the snapshot requirement becomes even more problematic. The white noise constraint method, typically used for narrow-band processing, is applied to a previously derived broadband processor to enhance its robustness to environmental mismatch and snapshot deficiency. The broadband white noise constraint theory is presented and validated through simulation and experimental data. The dynamic range bias obtained from the snapshot-deficient processing is shown to be consistent with that previously presented in the literature for a single frequency.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2756968View Description Hide Description
A tank experiment was carried out to investigate underwater sound propagation over an elastic bottom in flat and sloping configurations. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate range-dependent propagation models with high-quality experimental data. The sea floor was modeled as an elastic medium by a polyvinyl chloride slab. The relatively high rigidity of the slab requires accounting for shear waves in this environment. Acoustic measurements were obtained along virtual arrays in the water column using a robotic apparatus. Elastic parabolic equationsolutions are in excellent agreement with data.