NOTICE: Scitation Maintenance Sunday, March 1, 2015.

Scitation users may experience brief connectivity issues on Sunday, March 1, 2015 between 12:00 AM and 7:00 AM EST due to planned network maintenance.

Thank you for your patience during this process.

banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Accurate vocal compensation for sound intensity loss with increasing distance in natural environments
Rent this article for
Access full text Article
1.Creem, S. H. , and Proffitt, D. R. (1998). “Two memories for geographical slant: separation and interdependence of action and awareness,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 5, 2236.
2.Cynx, J. , Lewis, R. , Tavel, B. , and Tse, H. (1998). “Amplitude regulation of vocalizations in noise by a songbird, Taeniopygia guttata,” Anim. Behav. 56, 10713.
3.Healey, E. C. , Jones, R. , and Berky, R. (1997). “Effects of perceived listeners on speakers’ vocal intensity,” J. Voice 11, 6773.
4.Ho, A. K. , Iansek, R. , and Bradshaw, J. L. (1999). “Regulation of Parkinsonian speech volume: the effect of interlocuter distance,” J. Neurol., Neurosurg. Psychiatry 67, 199202.
5.Johnson, C. J. , Pick, H. L. , Jr., Siegel, G. M. , Ciccciarelli, A. W. , and Garber, S. R. (1981). “Effects of interpersonal distance on children’s vocal intensity,” Child Dev. 52, 721723.
6.Lombard, E. (1911). “Le Signe de l’Elévation de la Voix,” Ann. Maladies Oreille, Larynx, Nez, Pharynx 37, 101119.
7.Markel, N. N. , Prebor, L. D. , and Brandt, J. F. (1972). “Biosocial factors in dyadic communication,” J. Pers Soc. Psychol. 23, 1113.
8.Michael, D. D. , Siegel, G. M. , and Pick, H. L. , Jr. (1995). “Effects of distance on vocal intensity,” J. Speech Hear. Res. 38, 11761183.
9.Milner, A. D. , and Goodale, M. A. (1995). The visual brain in action (Oxford University Press, New York).
10.Pick, H. L. , Jr., Siegel, G. M. , Fox, P. W. , Garber, S. R. , and Kearney, J. K. (1989). “Inhibiting the Lombard effect,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 894900.
11.Scheifele, P. M. , Andrew, S. , Cooper, R. A. , Darre, M. , Musiek, F. E. , and Max, L. (2005). “Indication of a Lombard vocal response in the St. Lawrence River Beluga,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 14861492.
12.Schroeder, M. R. (1965). “New method of measuring reverberation time,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 37, 409412.
13.Siegel, G. M. , and Pick, H. L. , Jr. (1974). “Auditory feedback in the regulation of voice,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56, 16181624.
14.Sinnott, J. M. , Stebbins, W. C. , and Moody, D. B. (1975). “Regulation of voice amplitude by the monkey,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, 412414.
15.Studebaker, G. A. (1985). “Directivity of the human vocal source in the horizontal plane,” Ear Hear. 6, 3l5319.
16.Warren, R. M. (1968). “Vocal compensation for change in distance,” Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Acoustics (Tokyo), pp. 6164.
17.Warren, R. M. (1981). “Measurement of sensory intensity,” Behav. Brain Sci. 4, 175223.
18.Zahorik, P. , Brungart, D. S. , and Bronkhorst, A. W. (2005). “Auditory distance perception in humans: A summary of past and present research,” Acta Acust. 91, 409420.

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Human abilities to adjust vocal output to compensate for intensity losses due to sound propagation over distance were investigated. Ten normally hearing adult participants were able to compensate for propagation losses ranging from to source distance over a range of distances from 1 to . The compensation was performed to within of accuracy on average across all participants, distances, and propagation loss conditions with no practice or explicit training. These results suggest that natural vocal communication processes of humans may incorporate tacit knowledge of physical sound propagationproperties more sophisticated than previously supposed.


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Accurate vocal compensation for sound intensity loss with increasing distance in natural environments