Index of content:
Volume 122, Issue 5, November 2007
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions and basilar membrane vibration in the region of sensitive chinchilla cochleae122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2785034View Description Hide Description
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and basilar membrane (BM) vibration were measured simultaneously in the region of chinchilla cochleae. BM-Input-Output functions in a two-tone paradigm behaved similarly to DPOAEs for the 2f1–f2 component, nonmonotonic growth with the intensity of the lower frequency primary and a notch in the functions around SPL. Ripples in frequency functions occur in both BM and OAE curves as a function of the distortion frequency. Optimum f2/f1 ratios for DPOAE generation are near 1.2. The slope of phase curves indicates that for low the emission source is the place location while for the relative constancy of the phase function suggests that the place is the nonlinear region of f2, i.e., the wave location. Magnitudes of the DPOAEs increase rapidly above SPL suggesting a different source or mechanism at high levels. This is supported by the observation that the high level DPOAE and BM-DP responses remain for a considerable period postmortem.
Laser amplification with a twist: Traveling-wave propagation and gain functions from throughout the cochlea122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2783205View Description Hide Description
Except at the handful of sites explored by the inverse method, the characteristics—indeed, the very existence—of traveling-wave amplification in the mammalian cochlea remain largely unknown. Uncertainties are especially pronounced in the apex, where mechanical and electrical measurements lack the independent controls necessary for assessing damage to the preparation. At a functional level, the form and amplification of cochlear traveling waves are described by quantities known as propagation and gain functions. A method for deriving propagation and gain functions from basilar-membrane mechanical transfer functions is presented and validated by response reconstruction. Empirical propagation and gain functions from locations throughout the cochlea are obtained in mechanically undamaged preparations by applying the method to published estimates of near-threshold basilar membrane responses derived from Wiener-kernel (chinchilla) and zwuis analysis (cat) of auditory-nerve responses to broadband stimuli. The properties of these functions, and their variation along the length of the cochlea, are described. In both species, and at all locations examined, the gain functions reveal a region of positive power gain basal to the wave peak. The results establish the existence of traveling-wave amplification throughout the cochlea, including the apex. The derived propagation and gain functions resemble those characteristic of an active optical medium but rotated by 90° in the complex plane. Rotation of the propagation and gain functions enables the mammalian cochlea to operate as a wideband, hydromechanical laser analyzer.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2783125View Description Hide Description
The stability of a linear model of the active cochlea is difficult to determine from its calculated frequency response alone. A state space model of the cochlea is presented, which includes a discretized set of general micromechanical elements coupled via the cochlear fluid. The stability of this time domain model can be easily determined in the linear case, and the same framework used to simulate the time domain response of nonlinear models. Examples of stable and unstable behavior are illustrated using the active micromechanical model of Neely and Kim. The stability of this active cochlea is extremely sensitive to abrupt spatial inhomogeneities, while smoother inhomogeneities are less likely to cause instability. The model is a convenient tool for investigating the presence of instabilities due to random spatial inhomogeneities. The number of unstable poles is found to rise sharply with the relative amplitude of the inhomogeneities up to a few percent, but to be significantly reduced if the spatial variation is smoothed. In a saturating nonlinear model, such instabilities generate limit cycles that are thought to produce spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. An illustrative time domain simulation is presented, which shows how an unstable model evolves into a limit cycle, distributed along the cochlea.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2783985View Description Hide Description
This study investigates the use of chirp stimuli to compensate for the cochlear traveling wave delay. The temporal dispersion in the cochlea is given by the traveling time, which in this study is estimated from latency-frequency functions obtained from (1) a cochlear model, (2) tone-burst auditory brain stem response (ABR) latencies, (3) and narrow-band ABR latencies. These latency-frequency functions are assumed to reflect the group delay of a linear system that modifies the phase spectrum of the applied stimulus. On the basis of this assumption, three chirps are constructed and evaluated in 49 normal-hearing subjects. The auditory steady-state responses to these chirps and to a click stimulus are compared at two levels of stimulation (30 and ) and a rate of . The chirps give shorter detection time and higher signal-to-noise ratio than the click. The shorter detection time obtained by the chirps is equivalent to an increase in stimulus level of or more. The results indicate that a chirp is a more efficient stimulus than a click for the recording of early auditory evoked responses in normal-hearing adults using transient sounds at a high rate of stimulation.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2785810View Description Hide Description
Predicting auditory hazard from intense acoustic impulses, such as weapons fire or airbags, has been an intractable problem. The U.S. Army developed a theoretically based mathematical model of the ear designed to predict such hazards [the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for the Human (AHAAH)]. To validate it as a predictor of hazard, data from the literature (wave forms and changes in hearing sensitivity) were processed with the model in order to predict the onset of unacceptable threshold shift ( or more) in the 95th percentile human ear. For comparison, alternate standards MIL-STD-1747D and A-weighted energy were also used to compute hazards for the same data. The primary dataset was that of the US Army’s “Albuquerque studies” (53 different cases) and other impulses from the literature (19 additional predictions). The AHAAH model predicted correctly in over 95% of the cases, the MIL-STD-1474D was correct in 42% of the cases, and A-weighted energy was correct in 25% of the cases. Errors for all methods tended to be in the direction of overprediction of hazard. In addition to greatly increased accuracy, the AHAAH model also has the advantage of being theoretically based and including novel diagnostic features.