Index of content:
Volume 122, Issue 5, November 2007
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2783116View Description Hide Description
An underwater acoustic experiment with a two-dimensional rough interface, milled from a slab of PVC, was performed at a tank facility. The purpose was to verify the predictions of numerical models of acoustic rough surfacescattering, using a manufactured physical model of an ocean bottom that featured shear effects, nonhomogeneous roughness statistics, and root-mean-square roughness amplitude on the order of the acoustic wavelength. Predictions of the received time series and interface scattering strength in the band were obtained from the Bottom Reverberation from Inhomogeneities and Surfaces–Small-Slope Approximation (BORIS-SSA) numerical scatteringmodel. The predictions were made using direct measurements of scatteringmodel inputs—specifically, the geoacoustic properties from laboratory analysis of material samples and the grid of surface heights from a touch-trigger probe. BORIS-SSA predictions for the amplitude of the received time series were shown to be accurate with a root-mean-square residual error of about , while errors for the scattering strength prediction were higher . The work is part of an ongoing effort to use physical models to examine a variety of acoustic scattering and propagation phenomena involving the ocean bottom.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2783123View Description Hide Description
This article examines the effects of spatial field shifts in ocean acoustic environmental sensitivity analysis. Acoustic sensitivity studies are typically based on comparing acoustic fields computed for a reference environmental model and for a perturbed model in which one or more parameters have been changed. The perturbation to the acoustic field due to the perturbed environment generally includes a component representing a spatial shift of the field (i.e., local field structure remains coherent, but shifts in range and/or depth) and a component representing a change to the shifted field. Standard sensitivity measures based on acoustic perturbations at a fixed point can indicate high sensitivity in cases where the field structure changes very little, but is simply shifted by a small spatial offset; this can conflict with an intuitive understanding of sensitivity. This article defines and compares fixed-point and field-shift corrected sensitivity measures. The approaches are illustrated with examples of deterministic sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity to a specific environmental change) and stochastic sensitivity (sensitivity to environmental uncertainty) in range-independent and range-dependent environments.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2782915View Description Hide Description
Geoacoustic inversion estimates environmental parameters from measured acoustic fields (e.g., received on a towed array). The inversion results have some uncertainty due to noise in the data and modeling errors. Based on the posterior probability density of environmental parameters obtained from inversion, a statistical estimation of transmission loss (TL) can be performed and a credibility level envelope or uncertainty band for the TL generated. This uncertainty band accounts for the inherent variability of the environment not usually contained in sonar performance prediction model inputs. The approach follows [Gerstoft et al.IEEE J. Ocean. Eng.31, 299–307 (2006)] and is demonstrated with data obtained from the MAPEX2000 experiment conducted by the NATO Undersea Research Center using a towed array and a moored source in the Mediterranean Sea in November 2000. Based on the geoacoustic inversion results, the TL and its variability are estimated and compared with the measured TL.
122(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2782884View Description Hide Description
Underwater acoustic communication is a core enabling technology with applications in ocean monitoring using remote sensors and autonomous underwater vehicles. One of the more challenging underwater acoustic communication channels is the medium-range very shallow warm-water channel, common in tropical coastal regions. This channel exhibits two key features—extensive time-varying multipath and high levels of non-Gaussian ambient noise due to snapping shrimp—both of which limit the performance of traditional communication techniques. A good understanding of the communications channel is key to the design of communication systems. It aids in the development of signal processing techniques as well as in the testing of the techniques via simulation. In this article, a physics-based channel model for the very shallow warm-water acoustic channel at high frequencies is developed, which are of interest to medium-range communication system developers. The model is based on ray acoustics and includes time-varying statistical effects as well as non-Gaussian ambient noise statistics observed during channel studies. The model is calibrated and its accuracy validated using measurements made at sea.