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Seasonal variability and detection range modeling of baleen whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska, 1999–2002
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10.1121/1.2799905
/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/6/10.1121/1.2799905
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/6/10.1121/1.2799905

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Locations of moored hydrophones in the Gulf of Alaska (1999 엯; 2000 +; 2001 ◻).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Spectrograms of (a) fin whale calls recorded at 50° N 135° W on 25 November 2001 (spectrogram parameters: FFT 2048 points, 75% overlap, Hanning window, for a filter bandwidth of ); (b) humpback whale calls recorded at 53° N 157° W on 8 November 1999 (spectrogram parameters: FFT 512 points, 75% overlap, Hanning window, for a filter bandwidth of ); (c) eastern North Pacific and (d) western North Pacific blue whale calls recorded at 50° N 135° W. The eastern calls were recorded on 18 September 2000 and the western on 17 October 2001. (e) A series of calls from “Watkin’s whale” recorded at 54° N 145° W on 20 October 1999 (spectrogram parameters: FFT 4096 points, 75% overlap, Hanning window, for a filter bandwidth of ).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Annual detections of whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska averaged by month from October 1999 to May 2002. Histograms show the proportion of hours per month in which calls were detected and arrows indicate times when data were not available. Fin whales are shown as black bars, humpbacks as white bars, eastern North Pacific blue whales as dark gray, western North Pacific blue whales as medium gray and Watkins’ whale as light gray. (a) 50°N 135°W; (b) 50°N 145°W; (c) 53°N 157°W; (d) 55°N 145°W; (e) 52°N 140°W; (f) 51°N 152°W; and (g) 50°N 149°W.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Detection probabilities for (a) fin whale; (b) humpback whale; (c) eastern North Pacific blue whale; (d) western North Pacific blue whale; (e) Watkins’ whale. Heavy black line is detection probability for highest ambient noise (AN) levels from Andrew et al. (2002), thin black line is minimum AN levels (Wenz, 1962), thick gray line is detection probability from Urick (1983) moderate AN levels, and the dashed line is from Urick (1983) high AN levels and thick black line is from Andrew et al. (2002).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Modeled detection ranges based on maximum distance for 50% detection probability for the different ambient noise levels and modeling parameters used in the Gulf of Alaska by species at the six deployment sites from 1999. Lines shown for each detection distance are the same as those in Fig. 4 although the distances for higher ambient noise levels were sometimes so short that they do not show up as distinct from the hydrophone location symbol. (a) Fin whales; (b) humpback whales; (c) eastern North Pacific blue whales; (d) western North Pacific blue whales; and (e) Watkins’ whale.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Deployment details for hydrophones placed in the Gulf of Alaska.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Parameters used in detection distance modeling. Vocalization depth was held at for all species except fin whale (, Watkins et al. 1987). Numbers in parentheses are the values used for propagation loss modeling. For ambient noise levels, we used values given, in the order listed in the table, from Wenz (1962), Urick (1983, moderate and high shipping) and Andrew et al. (2002, median values).

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/6/10.1121/1.2799905
2007-12-01
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Seasonal variability and detection range modeling of baleen whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska, 1999–2002
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/122/6/10.1121/1.2799905
10.1121/1.2799905
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