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Predicting midsagittal pharyngeal dimensions from measures of anterior tongue position in Swedish vowels: Statistical considerations
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10.1121/1.2816579
/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/1/10.1121/1.2816579
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/1/10.1121/1.2816579

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Reference points for speaker BE. P1—mean position of the alveolar ridge reference point on all nine digitized vowel tracings; P2—mean position of the highest point of the palate; P3—mean position of the superior point on the rear pharyngeal wall; P4—mean position of the inferior point on the rear pharyngeal wall; P0—center of circular arc through P1, P2, and P3.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Gridlines for speaker BE constructed based on the reference points P1 through P4.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

PCA component shapes for speaker BE. Pellet displacements from mean position associated with variation in each component: (a) first principal component; (b) second principal component; (c) third principal component.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Regression results for speaker BE. For each gridline, black bars show the model sum of squares for the regression; gray bars show the error sum of squares; the total sum of squares is shown by the total height of the black and gray bars; solid line shows the regression ; dashed line shows the level at which is significant at the level according to the test.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Regression results for speaker JS. For each gridline, black bars show the model sum of squares for the regression; gray bars show the error sum of squares; the total sum of squares is shown by the total height of the black and gray bars; solid line shows the regression ; dashed line shows the level at which is significant at the level according to the test.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Regression results for speaker RL. For each gridline, black bars show the model sum of squares for the regression; gray bars show the error sum of squares; the total sum of squares is shown by the total height of the black and gray bars; solid line shows the regression ; dashed line shows the level at which is significant at the level according to the test.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Regression results for speaker F. For each gridline, black bars show the model sum of squares for the regression; gray bars show the error sum of squares; the total sum of squares is shown by the total height of the black and gray bars; solid line shows the regression ; dashed line shows the level at which is significant at the level according to the test.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The distribution of from multiple regressions with the final maximum number random, uniformly distributed independent variables and midsagittal cross distances at each gridline as dependent variables. The light gray region of each distribution shows the fraction of regressions below the 95th percentile of each gridline’s distribution, the dark gray shows fraction between the 99th and 99th percentiles, and the white shows the regressions above the 99th percentile. The solid horizontal line denotes the minimum value that would need to be attained for according to an test, and the dashed line the minimum values that would need to be attained for according to an test. Subject BE is shown in (a); subject JS in (b); subject RL in (c); and subject F in (d).

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Vowels analyzed in this study. “√” indicate that the vowel was produced by the given speaker; “n/a” indicates that it was not; a phonetic transcription indicates that a variant with different phonemic length (e.g., [ø] rather than [ø:]) was produced.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Standard deviations (mm) in the and coordinates of reference points across images. P1 is on the alveolar ridge; P2 is the most superior point of the hard palate; P3 is on the dorsal wall of the pharynx at the level of the anterior tubercle of the atlas; P4 is on the dorsal wall of the pharynx at the level of the bottom of the vallecular sinus. Coordinates are relative to the tip of the upper incisor.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Numerical experiment parameters. Although a potential maximum of eight independent variables (an - and a- and a -coordinate for each of four estimated fleshpoints) could be simulated, the small number of observations (vowels) and / or numerical degeneracy limits the actual maximum number of independent variables that can be used in each numerical experiment.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Cumulative variance accounted for by PCA components of eight pseudopellet variables

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

Mean for pharyngeal region gridlines. The pharyngeal regions include gridlines 11 through 30 for speaker BE; 11–24 for speaker JS; 11–28 for RL; and 12–24 for F. (See Figs. 4–7 for comparison.)

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/1/10.1121/1.2816579
2008-01-01
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Predicting midsagittal pharyngeal dimensions from measures of anterior tongue position in Swedish vowels: Statistical considerations
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/1/10.1121/1.2816579
10.1121/1.2816579
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