Spectrograms of examples of calls of each ecotype of NE Pacific killer whale (filter bandwidth of 88.24, FFT size 1024, 87.5% overlap). Dashed lines indicate the variable measured.
(the lowest frequency detectable on the spectrogram) plotted against (the frequency with highest amplitude between 0 and ) of a random sample of 30 calls each recorded from resident, transient, and offshore Pacific killer whale ecotypes.
(a) Audiogram of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar ( Hawkins and Johnstone, 1978 ) and one-third octave received levels (dB) up to of the most common resident call type (SI) from our sample, estimated to have been recorded from source based on surface observations, and on-axis based on the number of visible harmonics (see Miller, 2002 ). (b) Audiogram up to of the harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena (solid line; Kastelein et al., 2002 ), and harbor seal Phoca vitulina (dashed line; Kastak and Schusterman, 1998 ), and one third octave received levels (dB) of the most common transient call (WCT07) from our sample, estimated to have been recorded from source based on surface observations and on-axis based on the number of visible harmonics (see Miller, 2002 ).
Sound budgets from nearshore and offshore sites. Peaks represent short transient sounds such as whale calls.
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