Index of content:
Volume 123, Issue 4, April 2008
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
123(2008); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2839900View Description Hide Description
This paper presents experimental results that quantify the range of influence of vocal tract manipulations used in saxophone performance. The experiments utilized a measurement system that provides a relative comparison of the upstream windway and downstream air column impedances under normal playing conditions, allowing researchers and players to investigate the effect of vocal-tract manipulations in real time. Playing experiments explored vocal-tract influence over the full range of the saxophone, as well as when performing special effects such as pitch bending, multiphonics, and “bugling.” The results show that, under certain conditions, players can create an upstream windway resonance that is strong enough to override the downstream system in controlling reed vibrations. This can occur when the downstream air column provides only weak support of a given note or effect, especially for notes with fundamental frequencies an octave below the air column cutoff frequency and higher. Vocal-tract influence is clearly demonstrated when pitch bending notes high in the traditional range of the altosaxophone and when playing in the saxophone’s extended register. Subtle timbre variations via tongue position changes are possible for most notes in the saxophone’s traditional range and can affect spectral content from at least .
123(2008); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2836787View Description Hide Description
A finite element model of a piano soundboard is used to study the effect of the strings tension (downbearing) on its vibration, considering the ribs, the bridges and the crown. The downbearing is modeled with the prestress theory. Prestress calculation with linear and nonlinear models including geometric rigidity are compared in terms of the modal frequencies. The effects of the downbearing in modal frequencies and mobility are investigated and the importance of the crown on these results is evaluated. A simple phenomenological law is exhibited, which characterizes the evolution of eigenfrequencies with downbearing, including the initial crown.