Index of content:
Volume 123, Issue 4, April 2008
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
123(2008); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2832339View Description Hide Description
Nonlinear source–filter coupling has been demonstrated in computer simulations, in excised larynx experiments, and in physical models, but not in a consistent and unequivocal way in natural human phonations. Eighteen subjects (nine adult males and nine adult females) performed three vocal exercises that represented a combination of various fundamental frequency and formant glides. The goal of this study was to pinpoint the proportion of source instabilities that are due to nonlinear source–tract coupling. It was hypothesized that vocal fold vibration is maximally destabilized when crosses , where the acoustic load changes dramatically. A companion paper provides the theoretical underpinnings. Expected manifestations of a source–filter interaction were sudden frequency jumps, subharmonic generation, or chaotic vocal fold vibrations that coincide with crossovers. Results indicated that the bifurcations occur more often in phonations with crossovers, suggesting that nonlinear source–filter coupling is partly responsible for source instabilities. Furthermore it was observed that male subjects show more bifurcations in phonations with crossovers, presumably because in normal speech they are less likely to encounter these crossovers as much as females and hence have less practice in suppressing unwanted instabilities.
123(2008); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2887413View Description Hide Description
The problem of a single acoustically driven bubble translating unsteadily in a fluid is considered. The investigation of the translation equation identifies the inverse Reynolds number as a small perturbation parameter. The objective is to obtain a closed-form, leading order solution for the translation of the bubble, assuming nonlinear radial oscillations and a pressure field as the forcing term. In a second part, the periodic attractor of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation serves as basis for an optimal acoustic forcing designed to achieve maximized bubble translation over one dimensionless period. At near-resonant or super-resonant driving frequencies, it seems one cannot improve much on sinusoidal forcing. However at moderate acoustic intensity and sub-resonant frequencies, acoustic wave forms that enhance bubble collapse lead to displacement many times larger than the case of purely sinusoidal forcing. The survey covers a wide spectrum of driving ratios and bubble diameters including those relevant to biomedical applications. Shape stability issues are considered. Together, these results suggest new ways to predict some of the direct and indirect effects of the acoustic radiation force in applications such as targeted drug delivery, selective bubble driving, and accumulation.