Volume 123, Issue 4, April 2008
Index of content:
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
123(2008); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2885747View Description Hide Description
This study investigates the use of constraints upon articulatory parameters in the context of acoustic-to-articulatory inversion. These speaker independent constraints, referred to as phonetic constraints, were derived from standard phonetic knowledge for French vowels and express authorized domains for one or several articulatory parameters. They were experimented on in an existing inversion framework that utilizes Maeda’s articulatory model and a hypercubic articulatory-acoustic table. Phonetic constraints give rise to a phonetic score rendering the phonetic consistency of vocal tract shapes recovered by inversion. Inversion has been applied to vowels articulated by a speaker whose corresponding x-rayimages are also available. Constraints were evaluated by measuring the distance between vocal tract shapes recovered through inversion to real vocal tract shapes obtained from x-rayimages, by investigating the spreading of inverse solutions in terms of place of articulation and constriction degree, and finally by studying the articulatory variability. Results show that these constraints capture interdependencies and synergies between speech articulators and favor vocal tract shapes close to those realized by the human speaker. In addition, this study also provides how acoustic-to-articulatory inversion can be used to explore acoustical and compensatory articulatory properties of an articulatory model.
Spatiotemporal classification of vocal fold dynamics by a multimass model comprising time-dependent parameters123(2008); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2835435View Description Hide Description
A model-based approach is proposed to objectively measure and classify vocal fold vibrations by left–right asymmetries along the anterior–posterior direction, especially in the case of nonstationary phonation. For this purpose, vocal fold dynamics are recorded in real time with a digital high-speed camera during phonation of sustained vowels as well as pitch raises. The dynamics of a multimass model with time-dependent parameters are matched to vocal fold vibrations extracted at dorsal, medial, and ventral positions by an automatic optimization procedure. The block-based optimization accounts for nonstationary vibrations and compares the vocal fold and modeldynamics by wavelet coefficients. The optimization is verified with synthetically generated data sets and is applied to 40 clinical high-speed recordings comprising normal and pathological voice subjects. The resulting model parameters allow an intuitive visual assessment of vocal fold instabilities within an asymmetry diagram and are applicable to an objective quantification of asymmetries.
A three-dimensional articulatory model of the velum and nasopharyngeal wall based on MRI and CT data123(2008); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2875111View Description Hide Description
An original three-dimensional (3D) linear articulatory model of the velum and nasopharyngeal wall has been developed from magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and computed tomographyimages of a French subject sustaining a set of 46 articulations, covering his articulatory repertoire. The velum and nasopharyngeal wall are represented by generic surface triangular meshes fitted to the 3D contours extracted from MRI for each articulation. Two degrees of freedom were uncovered by principal component analysis: first, VL accounts for 83% of the velum variance, corresponding to an oblique vertical movement seemingly related to the levator veli palatinimuscle; second, VS explains another 6% of the velum variance, controlling a mostly horizontal movement possibly related to the sphincter action of the superior pharyngeal constrictor. The nasopharyngeal wall is also controlled by VL for 47% of its variance. Electromagnetic articulographic data recorded on the velum fitted these parameters exactly, and may serve to recover dynamic velum 3D shapes. The main oral and nasopharyngeal area functions controlled by the articulatory model, complemented by the area functions derived from the complex geometry of each nasal passage extracted from coronal MRIs, were fed to an acoustic model and gave promising results about the influence of velum movements on the spectral characteristics of nasals.