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Nonlinear source–filter coupling in phonation: Theorya)
a)Readers are referred to Related Article(s): [J. Acoust. Soc. Am.123 (4), 1902–1915 (Year: 2008)]

for a paper which reports on human subjects in this study.
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10.1121/1.2832337
/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/5/10.1121/1.2832337
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/5/10.1121/1.2832337

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Harmonic frequency generation by source–filter interaction; (top left) vocal tract shape; (top right) reactance curves, thin solid line for supraglottal, dashed line for subglottal, and thick solid line for combined; (middle left) sinusoidal glottal area function; (middle right) spectrum of glottal area; (bottom left) glottal flow; (bottom right) spectrum of glottal flow.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Harmonic frequency generation by source–filter generation with stronger coupling ; (top left) vocal tract shape; (top right) reactance curves, thin solid line for supraglottal, dashed line for subglottal, and thick solid line for combined; (middle left) sinusoidal glottal area function; (middle right) spectrum of glottal area; (bottom left) glottal flow; (bottom right) spectrum of glottal flow.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) glide produced with a driven sinusoidal glottal area function with no source–filter interaction; (top left) spectrogram for glottal flow based on sinusoidal glottal area, with reactance curves overlaid vertically; (top right) spectrogram for radiated mouth pressure ; (bottom left) amplitude envelope of glottal flow; (bottom right) amplitude envelope of radiated mouth pressure.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) glide produced with a driven sinusoidal glottal area function with source–filter interaction ; (top left) spectrogram for glottal flow based on sinusoidal glottal area, with reactance curves overlaid vertically; (top right) spectrogram for radiated mouth pressure ; (bottom left) amplitude envelope of glottal flow; (bottom right) amplitude envelope of radiated mouth pressure.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (Top) Vocal tract shape for the vowel /U/; (bottom) reactance curves, thick line supraglottal and thin line subglottal, and favorable ranges for , , and shown underneath.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Sketches of right vocal fold tissue displacement from the glottal midplane in coronal view of (a) modal register and (b) falsetto register. After Hirano, 1975.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Acoustic circuit diagrams for subglottal and supraglottal reactance, (a) inertive–inertive, (b) compliant–inertive, (c) inertive–compliant, and (d) compliant–compliant.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Fletcher’s (1993) small oscillation analysis; (top) reactance curves; (middle) the difference between the oscillation frequency F and the no load frequency ; (bottom) oscillation threshold pressure .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Sketches of a convergent glottis with two vibrational modes, (a) the mode and (b) the mode.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Simulation of downward and upward glide produced with a 175 point-mass self-oscillating biomechanical model of the vocal folds with no vocal tract interaction; (top) spectrogram, with reactance curves superimposed vertically, thick white line supraglottal and thin white line subglottal; (middle) glottal flow envelope; (bottom) glottal area envelope.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Simulation of downward and upward glide produced with a 175 point-mass self-oscillating biomechanical model of the vocal folds with subglottal interaction only; (top) spectrogram, with subglottal reactance superimposed vertically with white line; (middle) glottal flow envelope; (bottom) glottal area envelope.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Simulation of downward and upward glide produced with a 175 point-mass self-oscillating biomechanical model of the vocal folds with supraglottal interaction only; (top) spectrogram, with supraglottal reactance superimposed vertically with white line; (middle) glottal flow envelope; (bottom) glottal area envelope.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Simulation of downward and upward glide produced with a 175 point-mass self-oscillating biomechanical model of the vocal folds with both subglottal and supraglottal interaction, ; (top) spectrogram, with subglottal reactance (thin white line) and supraglottal reactance (thick white line) superimposed; (middle) glottal flow envelope; (bottom) glottal area envelope.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Simulation of downward and upward glide produced with a 175 point-mass self-oscillating biomechanical model of the vocal folds with both subglottal and supraglottal interaction, ; (top) spectrogram, with subglottal reactance (thin white line) and supraglottal reactance (thick white line) superimposed; (middle) glottal flow envelope; (bottom) glottal area envelope.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Output quantities for various degrees of interaction.

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2008-05-01
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Nonlinear source–filter coupling in phonation: Theorya)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/5/10.1121/1.2832337
10.1121/1.2832337
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