Longuet-Higgins cubic vortex function compared to a semicylindrical cross section.
Lowest eigenfrequency of collective bubble oscillation.
Schematic of the acoustic transformation model: is the deepwater ocean wave frequency, the acoustic radiation frequency, the deepwater wave spectrum, the breaking wave height spectrum, the bubble cloud characteristic length distribution and the amplitude spectrum of acoustic radiation.
Radiation frequencies of collective bubble oscillation from Eq. (6) versus the deepwater wave frequency for spectra with SWH of 1.7, 3.1, 4.5 and .
Schematic of multiple contributions to bubble spectrum from ocean waves of different frequencies .
Approximate evolution of plume cross-sectional area.
Atmospheric infrasound from waves breaking at Polihale, Kauai.
Modeled infrasound spectra for ocean wave spectra with SWH of 1.8, 2.1, 2.4, 2.8, 3.7, compared to Kauai data.
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