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Broadband backscatter from individual Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community animals with implications for spinner dolphin foraging
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10.1121/1.2902187
/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/5/10.1121/1.2902187
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/5/10.1121/1.2902187

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Schematic of the plastic holding tank in which the backscatter measurements were made. A broadband transducer was mounted on the bottom of the tank pointing upwards and the subjects were attached to monofilament lines and a special support assembly. (b) Pictures of the three classes of microneckton that were measured acoustically.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The waveform and frequency spectrum of the simulated dolphin echolocation signals used in the backscatter measurements.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The averaged echo waveform, the cross-correlation function between the averaged incident signal, and averaged echo waveform, the envelop of the correlation function and the averaged echo spectrum along with its standard deviation over the 20 pings for each orientation are shown for a Benthosema fibulatum, Diaphus adenomus, Myctophum brachygnathos in the dorsal and lateral aspects.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The mean and standard deviation of the target strength spectra taken over 20 pings for the subjects of Fig. 3 in both the dorsal and lateral aspects.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The local minima frequency (associated with ) in the target strength and echo spectra plotted as a function of length echoes from the dorsal aspect for all the Benthosema fibulatum. The averaged echo waveforms and spectra were taken over the 20 echoes recorded per orientation for each animal.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Results of height versus length for Benthosema fibulatum preserved in formaldehyde.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The echo waveform, cross-correlation function, the envelope of the cross-correlation function, and the echo spectra for three species of shrimps, Sergia fulgens and Pasiphaea truncate and Gnathophausia longispina. The length of the specimen is denoted below the species name. The averaged echo waveforms and spectra were taken over the 20 echoes recorded per orientation for each animal.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The echo waveform, cross-correlation function, the envelope of the cross-correlation function and the target strength for two species of squid, Liocranchia reinhardti and Abralia trigonura. The length of the specimen is denoted below the species name. The averaged echo waveforms and spectra were taken over the 20 echoes recorded per orientation for each animal.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The target strength spectra calculated from the dorsal aspect echoes for the shrimp species of Fig. 7 and the squid species of Fig. 8.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Waveform for a simulated Benthosema fibulatum echo consisting of seven versions of the dorsal aspect echo waveform shown in Fig. 3, summed together with an arbitrary delay for each replica. The echo and target strength spectra are shown below the echo waveform.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Summary of Mesopelagic boundary animals measured with a simulated dolphin echolocation signal.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/5/10.1121/1.2902187
2008-05-01
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Broadband backscatter from individual Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community animals with implications for spinner dolphin foraging
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/123/5/10.1121/1.2902187
10.1121/1.2902187
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