(Color online) F0 contours of all 16 utterances that were recorded. , , , , spk, and sent denote happy, angry, neutral, sad, speaker, and sentence, respectively.
(Color online) Stylization example for the happy utterance, speaker=1, sentence=1. Circles=original F0 contour, Squares=2 semitones stylization, Triangles=10 semitones stylization, Dots=40 semitones stylization.
(Color online) The Gaussian emotional regions for each emotion, speaker, and sentence. axis=F0 mean (Hz), axis=F0 range (Hz).
(Color online) Emotional regions for different speech quality requirements for angry emotion. The areas of emotional regions decrease as quality requirements increase. Displayed are the following quality conditions: (1) No restriction (same as Fig. 3), (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) . Small circles show the resynthesized utterances. axis=F0 mean (Hz), axis=F0 range (Hz).
(Color online) Euclidean emotional regions estimated from the F0 contours of original utterances. axis=F0 mean (Hz), axis=F0 range (Hz).
(Color online) The perceived Gaussian emotional regions and estimated Euclidean emotional regions, axis=F0 mean (Hz), axis=F0 range (Hz).
(Color online) Figures (a), (b), (c), (d): The differences between the emotion recognition percentages of original and modified utterances. Happy=open circle, Angry=filled circle, Sad=open square, Neutral=filled square, Other=filled triangle. Figures (e), (f): The differences between the average speech qualities (5=excellent, 4=good, 3=fair, 2=poor, 1=bad) of original and modified utterances. Speaker 1=open circle, Speaker 2=filled square.
(Color online) Relation between average quality, similarity, and percentage parameters. Note that the quality is normalized: 1=Excellent, 0.8=Good, 0.6=Fair. 0.4=Poor. 0.2=Bad. Squares are used for similarity, circles for percentage, and for quality variables.
Summary of the performed F0 contour modifications. The values for mean and range are in Hz and the values for stylization are in semitone.
Cochran’s Q statistics calculated for emotion selection dependent variable. Significant results are in italic form.
Repeated measures ANOVA statistics calculated for quality dependent variable. The reported are the F values for Greenhouse–Geisser tests.
Repeated ANOVA statistics calculated for quality dependent variable. The reported are the F values for Greenhouse–Geisser tests. Significant results are shown in italic for easy differentiation.
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...