Map of the study area with bathymetry, shipping route axis, positions of recording hydrophone arrays in 2003–2005 summers and of the calling blue and fin whales used for ORCA validation.
Sound speed profiles in the area in summer of 2003 from Fisheries and Oceans Canada oceanographic data.
Cumulative probability of summer noise levels in blue and fin whale signature calls’ bands in the study area from 2482 systematic periods of recordings at ten stations. The low-noise conditions correspond to the first 25% below re
(Color online) Percentage of calls expected to be detected by a -deep receiver as function of whale calling depth and range, for infrasounds for the September mean sound speed profile of Fig. 2. (a) The difference with the June 7 sound speed profile (b) and the variation due to the high internal tide in June (c).
(Color online) Percentage of calls expected to be detected by a -deep receiver as function of whale calling depth and range, for audible D-call for mean and low noise with the September mean sound speed profile [(a)–(c)] and with a processing gain for the three sound speed profiles of Fig. 2: September mean (d), June (e), and June high internal tide (f).
call received level and percentage of masked calls under mean noise conditions as function of range for a -deep calling whale and a -deep receiver.
(Color online) Maps of percentage of infrasound calls from 25 and calling whales expected to be detected [(a)–(c)] and localized [(b) and (d)] by a -deep hydrophone array at the 2003 array location under mean noise conditions on the seaway. Nonlinear palettes.
(Color online) Maps of percentage of blue whale audible D-call from 25 and calling whales expected to be detected [(a) and (d)] and localized [(b), (c), (e), and (f)] with a gain processor by a -deep hydrophone array at the 2003 array location under mean noise conditions [(a), (b), (d), and (e)] on the seaway and low-noise conditions occurring 25% of the time [(c) and (f)]. Nonlinear palettes.
Hydrophone arrays’ deployment characteristics and number of power spectral densities systematically sampled along the time series for the noise PDF.
Parameters used for Laurentian channel silt bottom description for ORCA normal mode propagation model.
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